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TWO LECTURES, 



ON THE 



NATURAL HISTORY 



OF THE 



CAUCASIAN AND NEGRO RACES 



J 



BY 



JOSIAH C. NOTT, M. D. 



41 Si ma raison vient d* en haut, c* est la voix du ciel qui me parle par 

elle; il faut que je Fecoute." 



,, ^P 



MOBILE. 

PRINTED BT DADE AND THOMPSON 



1844. 



PREFACE. 



With the view of exciting a taste for literary and scientific 
pursuits, several gentlemen proposed a course of popular Lec- 
tures in Mobile, leaving the choice of subjects to those gentle- 
men who might be disposed to embark in the enterprise. 

Amongst others I was solicited to take part, and the follow- 
ing pages contain two lectures which I delivered, with some 
modification in the Introduction, and the addition of an Appen- 
dix. 

These lectures were written in the midst of pressing pro- 
fessional engagements, without the most distant idea of publica- 
tion; and I have since their delivery, been so much occupied 
that I have not had time to copy the manuscript, or superin- 
tend properly the printing. They will therefore be found full 
of typographical errors, errors in style, punctuation, &c. 
Parts of my lectures, however, have been misunderstood and 
misrepresented, and I have therefore determined to publish 
without delay, in self-defence. 

We have no good library in Mobile, and those who know 
the extent and difficulty of my subject, need not be told that 
this is an ample reason for the omission of many important 
facts. I have drawn largely from the able works of Pritch- 
ard, Caldwell, Gliddon, Morton, and others whose quotations 
and facts can be relied on. 

The parts which treat of the effect of crossing races, are 
those to which I wish to draw more particular attention, as 
these facts have not heretofore been sufficiently considered. 

Mobile, Feb., 1, 1844. 



INTRODUCTION. 




The question of the unity of the Human Race is a grave 

has elicited a vast deal of talent and research, and is 
leserving of the profoundest study — most candid men have 
acknowledged its difficulty, and that all past time has afforded 
no data, by which it can be definitively settled. My object is 
to place before the world new facts, which may assist in form- 
ing a rational conclusion on this vexed question. 

Vv'ben we look around us and see the various complexions, 
and various physical conformations which exist in the human 
race, as the Caucasian, Mongol, Malay, Indian and Negro, 
we have naturally forced upon our minds the inquiry, are all 
these derivedfrom one pair, or are they of distinct origins? 



This subject is attended by the same difficulty which has im- 
peded the advancement of other departments of Natural His- 
tory, as well as the Sciences of Astronomy and Geology. In 
their infancy, discoveries in these sciences, were regarded as 
inconsistent with the Mosaic account of the creation, and they 
have encountered determined opposition from well meaning 
and other religious persons. The scientific men who have 
been bold enough to speak truth, and to uphold the works of 
God, have been persecuted by those who mistake their own 
intellects for a measure of wisdom, and their own passions and 
prejudices for the will of heaven. 

When Gallileo promulgated the great truth that the sun 
stands still, and the earth moves round it, he was attacked and 
persecuted by the whole priesthood — he was twice brought 
before the Inquisition and forced to renounce his doctrines. 
Time, however, has served to show that Gallileo was right, 
and the Bible still stands "the rock of ages." 

The Unity of the Human Race is a question appertaining to 
Natural History, which should be left open to fair and honest 



investigation, and made to stand or fall according to the facts. 

I should therefore, have much preferred, not to involve 

theological points, but I know that others will do it — that I 

shall have anathamas heaped on my head, and wrong motives 



imputed to me — false issues will be made and the true points 
for discussion evaded. 

I am prepared for all this — those who know me well, I 
have the vanity to believe, will do me justice; and I am quite 
indifferent to die censure of those who hold up Christ as their 
model, while they are pouring out phials of wrath. 



4 



My object is truth, and I care not which way the question 
is decided, provided the decision is a correct one. I have ac- 
cumulated a number of curious and interesting facts, some of 
which are new, and I have interpreted them dispassionately. 
My conclusions may be disputed, but they cannot be disprov- 
ed in the present state of the science of Natural History. 
New facts must be brought to light before certain conclusions 
to the contrary are arrived at. 

The Mosaic account, as will be seen in my appendix, sheds 
no satisfactory light on this question. The book of Genesis 
has proved to be a field of endless and angry disoussion 
amongst Doctors of Divinity, and they are now no nearer 
agreeing than thev were 2000 years ago. All that they have 
proved, is, that they know nothing about it. The world was 
made for us all, and there is no reason whv I am not as ranch 
entitled to an opinion as any Protestant, Jew or Catholic. 

Luther, speaking of the Book of Genesis, says: "There- 
has not hitherto, been any one in the church, that has with 
sufficient propriety and exactness, expounded the whole of 
these subjects; for expositors have so mixed them up with 
various, diversified and never ending inquiries, as to make it 
apparent that God has reserved to himself alone this majesty of 
wisdom, and the sound understanding of this chapter; leaving 
to us the general knowledge that the world had a beginning, 
and was created out of nothing by God. This general knowl- 
edge is clearly derived from the text. But with respect to 
the particular things, there is very much that is involved in 
difficulty and doubt, and about which questions without end 
are agitaed." 

Calvin says: "Two opposite errors are common — some 
persons finding that themselves or the bulk of men have been 
imposed upon, reject in the mass all religious doctrines; others 
with weak credulity, indiscriminately embrace whatsoever is 
proposed to them in the name of God. Each extreme is wrong. 
The former class filled with proud prejudice, bar themselves 
out from the way of improvement; the others rashly expose 
themselves to every wind of error. From these two ex- 
tremes, Paul recalls the Thesalonians to the middle path; for- 
bidding the condemnation of any sentiment till it be first exam- 
ined : and admonishing that we should exercise a just judg- 
ment before we receive as certain, that which is proposed to 
us. Nothing is more hurtful than the petulent and conceited 
disposition, by which we take up a dislike to any sentiment, 
without taking the trouble of a fair examination. ' ' 

When the Doctors differ* who is to decide? My reply is, 



5 



God himself. We are to appeal to Analogies, facts, indue- 



d to the universal and ~ „ 



The plurality of species in the human, race does no more 



Geology, 



and Natural H 



do the admitted facts of Astronomy mid 
has struggled through all opposition. Geology 




ban of the inq 



are rapidly progressing towards perfection. The re- 
of Christ too, is advancing as the world becomes more 



enlightened, and they can and will march on together, receiv- 
ing light from each other, and upholding the wisdom, good- 
ness and glory of God, 

The study of Natural Theology is receiving more and more 
attention every year, and my firm conviction is, that great in- 
jury has been done to revealed religion by forbidding the 
study of God in the vastness and majesty of his works. This 
is the study by which the existence of a God is demonstrated, 
and when this first step is gained, the next which the enqui- 
rer takes, is to ask if God has spoken to man! If so, whan 
and where ? 

"How do you know," said a traveller to a poor Arab of the 
desert, "that there is a God1" "In the same manner," he 



replied, " 



of 



sand 



rds and works of God, if properly understood* 



never be opposed to each other — they are 



the great sea 



same pure fountain, and must at last mingle 



In n^y lectures I distinctly and honestly disclaimed any wish 
intention of throwing doubts over the divine origin of either 



New or Old Testaments, and went on to say, "Take away 



the Divinity of the Bible, and he is no friend to man 
would wish to pull the fabric down— it is necessary 



this world 



•;■;# 



should be taught* and 



where, I would ask, can we find a system so pure and so con- 
ducive to our happiness as that of Christ]" 

It should be born in mind, that we are now in the 19th 
century, which is marked by an advanced state of the sciences 
hitherto unknown, and that Biblical commentators have been 
forced to make large concessions to Astronomy t Natural Histo- 
ry and Geology. 

There is another important point to be remembered in this 
discussion, and I refer to my appendix for illustration. The 
Rev. John Pye Smith, D. D., says that "to those who have 
•tudied the phraseology of scripture, there is no rule of inter- 



6 

pretation more certain than this, that universal terms are often 
Used to signify only a very large amount in number, or quan- 
tity," Dr. George Young, says that "all, every one, the 
whole, and such like expressions, are very often used to denote 
a great many, or a large proportion^ 

Now why I would ask, does not this apply to what is said 
of the human race, as well as to any thing else? 

Dr. Smith says, ''that it is certain the Hebrews (though for 
along time under the instruction and guidance of Moses) were 
ignorant of the spheroidal shape of the globe." And it 13 
more than probable that this fact, as well as many others of 
Geographical and scientific character were not revealed to Mo* 
$e$ % The same remark applies to St. Paul and the other wri- 
ters of the New Testament; they did not pretend to have fath- 
omed all the mysteries of the Almighty, *»nd we have no rea- 
son to suppose they knew any thing of the interior of Africa 
or of the existence of America. The unity of the human race 
is spoken of so seldom in the New Testament, and in such a 
passing way as to leave room for rational doubts on the sub- 
ject; we are therefore at liberty to appeal to facts. 

I will here lay down a chain of propositions for examina- 
tion, and I would appeal to every candid man who has studi- 
ed Geology and Natural History, to say whether they are not 
true. 

1st. Have there not been several creations and destructions 
in the Animal and Vegitable kingdom %, previous to the crea- 
tion spoken of by Mosesl 

2nd. Is it not admitted by Naturalists, that many of the an- 
imals now upon the earth are entirely different from those 
which existed before the flood, and that if the flood was uni- 
versal these animals have been created since? 

3d Is it not admitted by Naturalists that the Ark only contain- 
ed the animals which inhabited the part of the earth in which 
Noah dwelt, and that it is a Zoological and physical impossibili- 






ty that the Ark could have contained pairs and septuples of 
all the animals now on the earth 1 



4th. Is it not a fact, that Islands newly emerged from the 



*Note — " Again the devil taketh him (Jesus) up into an exceeding high 
mountain and showeth him all tltc kingdoms of the world, and the glory of 

them." 
"And the devil taking him up into an high mountain, showed unto him 

all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time." 

Now a strict construction of these passages would lead to the inference, 
that St. Mathew, St. Luke and others, were as ignorant of the spheroi- 
dal shape of the globe as were the Hebrews; but it will be seen in the ap- 
pendix, that such constructions should not always be given. 



7 

ocean, become covered with plants, differing from all others 
in other parts of the globe — thus showing that the creative 
power of the Almighty is still exercised, whenever circum- 
stances are ready for it? 

5th. Does not all this prove that the account given by Mo- 
ses is imperfect, and that much has been omitted of the infinite 
works of the creator, both before and after the creation of which 

he speaks? 

6th Has God any where said that he never intended to cre- 
ate another man, or that other races were not created in dis- 
tant parts of the globe. I would ask, after all these admitted 



truths, is there any thing so revolting in the idea that a Negro, 



Indian, or Malay, may have been created since the flood of 
Noah, or (if the flood was not universal) before this epoch? 

I know it will be said that Negroes existed at the time 
that Moses wrote, but to this I will reply that Moses must 
have known equally well of a vast number of animals which 
did not descend from the Ark, and which were not included 
in his account. 

I set out then with the proposition, that there is a Genus, 
Man, comprising two or more species — that physical causes 
cannot change a Wlrite man into a Negro, ana that to say this 
change has been effected by a direct act of providence, is an as- 
sumption which cannot be proven, and is contrary to the great 



chain of Nature's laws. 



1* 



LECTURE 1. 



Before entering upon the Natural History of the human 
race, it is indispensably necessary, as a preiunenary step, to 
examine some points in chronology, and to take a glance at 
the early history of Egypt. I must show that the Caucasian 
or White, and the Negro races were distinct at a very remote 
date, and that ike Egyptians were Caucasians. Unless this 
point can be established the contest must be abandoned. 

In order to show how completely we are left in the dark 
on tins subject by the Old Testament, it will be necessary to 
make some allusion to the diversity of chronological compu- 
tations. 

The commonly received opinion is that our globe was cre- 
ated 4004 years before Christ, and that the Deluge took place 
2348 B. C. 

These computations let it be remembered, were made by 
Arch Bishop usher, were adopted by an Act of the British Par- 
liament and are the dates annexed to our Bibles. 

Now, no one will pretend that Arch Bishop Usher was in- 
spired, or that there have not been other divines as learned as 
himself, and still less will any one pretend that the British 
Parliament is distinguished either for inspiration or piety. 
These dates then, are entitled to no more respect than any 
other human opinions. 

Some may be surprised to learn that there are, besides that 
of Bishop Usher, more than 300 computations for the creation 
and deluge — these computations too are made by learned di- 
vines, and differ at least 1500 years. I will cite a few 
only of the most prominent, as lam desirous of avoiding pro- 



lixity. 



Creation. Deluge. Exodus. 



Josephus, 1648 B.C. 
Eng Bible 1491 



Septuagint, 5586 B. C 3246 B. C. 
Hebrew text, 4161 2228 

English Bible 4004 2348 

These are sufficient to show how widely the highest and 
most competent authorities differ on these points 



There is even a difference of 10 years in the dates given for 



the birth of Christ, and Moses has left no data, nor is there any 



9 

thing in the History of Egypt, by which Sis time can be de- 
termined. 

Modern science establishes beyond the possibility of a 
doubt, the feet, that these dates, for the creation at least, are 

short, and probably by many thousand years. I presume 
there are few if any divines of the present day, conversant 
with Geology and Natural History, who do not concur in this 
opinion, and who do not believe there have been other floods 
besides the one spoken of by Moses. 




In writing' the Natural History of the human race, we must 
commence with the subsidence of the Deluge; this as I have 
stated, is placed by Usher, 2348 B. C. Now I propose to 
show by positive proofs from recent examination of Egyptian 
monuments that this date is erroneous — that Negroes existed 
in Africa before this date of the flood, and that there is reason 
to believe they did not descend from Noah's family. 

Moses dwelt in Egypt some 1500 years B. C, and is said 
to have been "learned in all the wisdom" of this singular and 
interesting country. We have all heard from our childhood 
of her Pyramids, her magnificent temples, her obelisks and 
other monuments of her surprising greatness. 

These monuments are embossed with hierogliphics which 
have puzzled the brains of the most learned antiquarians for 
centuries; and strange to say, the honor of discovering a key 
by which they could be decyphered, has remained for our 
age. 

About twenty years ago, Champollion, who was sent to 
Egypt by the French Government, during his researches, 
found the celebrated Rosetta stone, on which were engraven 
three inscriptions in different characters. 

The 1st was composed of these hieroglyphics— the 2nd was 

the Demotic, or common written language of Egypt, and the 
3d was Greek. 

The event recorded on this stone was the coronation of 
Epiphanes &c., which took place at Memphis in March 196 B. 
C, and the whole inscription would take up two ordinary oc- 
tavo pages. 

On comparing the three different inscription*, they were 
found to be exact translations of each other, and a key was 
thus at mce furnished, by which most of the chronological 
mysteries of Egypt were to be unravelled. Since that tune, 



Egyptian hieroglyphics have been read and translated with 



almost as much ease as Greek or Hebrew. 

We now know more of the history of Egypt prior to Moses, 



10 

than we do of the history of France or England, prior to Char- 
lemangne or Alfred. 

I am mainly indebted to Mr. J. S. Gliddon for the facts I 
shall use on this subject. Mr. G. lived in Egypt 23 years, is 
intelligent, well informed, and I learn from those who know 
him well, is an amiable and honorable gentleman. 

A joint commission was sent to E gy pt some years ago by 
the French Government, and the Grand Duke of Tuscany, 
headed by two of the most distinguished men of the a 




Champolhon and Rosellini, for the purpose of examining the 
monuments of this country. On their return home they each 
published works which have been the greatest literary won- 
ders of the age. 

Mr. Gliddon, in addition to his opportunities of examinin 
their works, has enjoyed their friendship and intimacy, an 
has travelled over the same ground they have and examined 
the monuments for himself. 

Now here are three gentlemen of character and competency, 
who have no object in teaching falsehoods, and when they 




state a fact as certain we must believe them — they must know 
more of these subjects than Oxford and Andover professors. 

Historians have assigned to Egypt 31 Dynasties, compri- 
sing 378 Kings, previous to the conquest by Alexander the 
great, which took place 332 B. C, and a large proportion of 
these dynasties have been verified by the hieroglyphic inscrip- 
tions. The obelisks, tombs and other monuments had inscrib- 
ed on them the name of each monarch, the number of years 
he reigned, the principal events of his reign, &?c, and by put- 
ting together these reigns in their proper order, we get at 
positive dates. 

The positive monumental data go back to the year B. C. 
2272, which is within 72 years of Usher's date of the flood. 

The list of monuments are not perfect beyond that dat 
many have been destroyed, in consequence of which, the date 
of some of the Kings cannot be determined with precision. 

Besides Manetho, the Egyptian historian, we have the au- 

of Herodotus, Eratosthenes, Diodorus, Josephus, the 
old Egyptian Chronicle, as well as the hieroglyphics, to prove 
that Menes was the first King of Egypt — it is certain that he 
reigned long previous to the positive date above given, and 
Champollion and Rosellini place him about 2750 years B. G. 
which is 400 years before our date of the deluge. 

The Pyramids were built between the time of Menes, the 
1st King, and 2272 B. C, and hieroglyphic writing was com- 
mon at the time of the Pyramids. 





11 

Now all these statements are not mere conjectures, but 
positive facts, engraven upon stone at the time the events re- 
corded transpired; they are just as much to be relied on as the 
inscriptions on the Bunker Hill, or Battle Monument at Balti- 
more. 

Another proof of the remote date of the flood, or of its lim- 
ited extent, is seen in the great age of certain trees in Africa 
and Central America — distinguished Botanists assert that 
some of these trees are 6000 years old — full grown trees may 
have been created when Adam was, bat we have no reason to 
believe they have been since — this fact then, which no Botan- 
ists doubts, proves that the flood took place at least 6000 years 
ago, or it was not universal. 

It is recorded that the largest Pyramid took 100,000 men 
20 years to build it; the immense masses of stone of which it 
is built, were brought from a great distance and transported 
across the Nile. And it is recorded in hieroglyphics, that it 
took 10 years to prepare the materials before the construction 
commenced. 

Now let me ask, if several hundred of these pyramids exis- 
ted, with a vast number of other stupendous monuments — if 
Memphis and Thebes were built and contained with the coun- 
try around, a population which could execute all these won- 
derful things — it all the useful arts and sciences, together with 
Astronomy, existed at this remote date; how many centuries 
previous must this country have been populated? It is diffi- 
cult for the mind to reach it. Reflect for a moment on the 
slow progress which a nation must make from infancy to such 
perfection. 

The world has been most egregiously deceived by Greek 
and Roman historians — Herodotus particularly, who has been 
called the father of history, should with more propriety, be 
called the father of romance. 

Herodotus was in Egypt about 430 B. C, during the do- 
minion of the Persians, long after she had fallen from her pris- 



tine greatness. He was ignorant of the language, was looked 



upon like other foreigners, as an "impure gentile" — did not 
associate with the higher castes, and received his information 
as other travellers, through ignorant, and often dishonest in- 
terpreters. The same remarks apply with still greater force 
to t)iodorus and other writers of later times. They were to- 
tally unable to decypher the hieroglyphics, and recorded 
vague traditions and stories of events 2 or 3000 years before 
their day. 

Of what they saw with their own eyes, they may be 



12 

supposed lo speak with some degree of accuracy — perhaps 
as much as would a Russian or Egyptian traveller in the f. 
States. 

Manetho is the historian most worthy of credit, as liis dy- 
nasties and other facts are in accordance with the hieroglyph- 
ic inscriptions, which is not only the best test we coulcl have 
at this late day, but a test which is almost conclusive. 

Manetho was an Egyptian Priest, who lived B. C. about 
260 years. He of course was familiar with the language and 
literature of his country, and as his history was written by the 
order of one of the Ptolemies, who was then on the throne, of 
course the Archives of the nation and all sources of informa- 
tion were thrown open to him. Hieroglyphic writing was 
then in use and he was familiar with it. 

Unfortunately there is no copy of Manetho's works extant, 
and we have only extracts from them in the works of Jose- 
phus and others. Next to a pure copy of the Bible, I know 
of no work so important as a correct and full copy of his wri- 
tings — it is to be hoped that one may yet be discovered. 

Egypt is the earliest point of civilization of which we have 
any records: the history of this country is doubly interesting 
to us as it has been asserted by most historians, it was origin- 
ally inhabited by negroes, and that from this race all the Arts 
and Sciences have been derived. 

I shall however, be able to show satisfactorily, that recent 
investigations have overthrown all previously received opin- 
ions on the subject, and that the Egyptians were a Caucasian 
race. 

In the allotment of territories to the offspring of Noah, 
Egypt was given as an inheritance to Mizraim, the son of 
Ham, He must have proceded with his companions from 
the banks of the Euphrates, along the borders of the Mediter- 
anean, and across the Isthmus of Suez, to his point of destina- 
tion — as lower Egypt, near the mouth of the Nile was most ea- 
sy of access, and the most fertile country, it is reasonable to 
suppose that here there first settlement was made. Mizraim 
being a descendant of Noah, was of course a Caucasian. 



Shem and Ham were twin brothers— the word Shem, means 



• 



white, and Ham, means dark, or swarthy, but not black. It 
is probably therefore, that there was the same difference be- 
tween them, that we often see between brothers here. Ma- 
ny have supposed Ham to be the progenitor of the negro race. 
There was no curse upon him, and there is nothing in the Bi- 
ble which induces such a belief; but this point is settled by 



)9 



13 

the fact which I shall prove, that the Egyptians were not 
Negroes. 

The curse of heaven fell upon Canaan, but we have no rea- 
son to believe that the curse was a physical one. Canaan too, 
took possession of Palestine, and not any part of Africa; and 
his descendants were Caucasians. 

Mr. J. S. Gliddon asserts that it can be proven by paintings 
and sculptures, of a date earlier than 1500 years B. C. 
that the Canaanites and Negroes were as different as the whites 
and negroes are of the present age, and that the negroes then 
presented the same physical characteristics which they do now, 
after a lapse of 3,500 years. 

The drawings and sculptures of this early date, often rep- 
resent negroes as slaves and captives; and as an evidence of 
the estimation in which this black race was held, even at this 
remote date, the inscriptions designated their country as "bar- 
barian, and their race as perverse. 

You will remember that the Nile runs north and empties 
into the Mediteranean, and that it takes its rise towards the 
center of Africa, far into the country which is now, and has 
been, as far back as history can trace, inhabited by Negroes. 

According to most historians, civilization commenced high 
up the Nile m Ethopia, and was thence brought down towards 
its mouth into Egypt. Late investigations, however, have 
disproved this assertion, and shown by positive facts, that the 
oldest monuments are found in Egypt, particularly at Mem- 
phis. 

It is now proven that time and circumstances did not effect 
any material change in Hams progeny, and that his lineal de- 
scendants were pure Caucasians. They very naturally were 
modified in upper Egypt, by admixture with the Ethopians, 
Arabs and others, who bordered on their territory. To this 
day, Mr. Gliddon says, the Fellahs, or people of lower Egypt, 
are but little mixed. 

Now I would ask with Mr. Gliddon, how long must it have 
taken for the descendants of Ham to have gone from the banks 
of the Euphrates in Asia, into Africa and up the Nile 1500 
miles — there grow into a powerful nation— carry the Arts 
and Sciences to the highest state of perfection, and next, as an 
additional evidence of civilization, turn perfectly black — after- 
wards come down the Nile again 1500 miles to its mouth, and 
to cap the climax, turn white again; this too, in a climate 
where no one's skin has changed in the last 4000 years? Now 
if there is any miracle in the Bible more wonderful than this, I 
should like to know what it i3. All these events too, according 



14 

to the Hebrew version, happen in 100 years, and according 
to the Septuagint 500. 

Besides the proofs drawn from the hieroglyphics, paintings, 
sculptures, &c, there are others which not only 
roborate, but amount to perfect demonstration of the fact, that 
the Ancient Egyptians were Caucasians, 

The great Naturalist, Cuvier, has spent much time and la- 






1 



whatever to the Neg 
the hair are Cau 
turalists concur. 



ter a careful examination of 50 Mum- 
they are Caucasian, and have no resemblance 

o; the head, the whole skeleton and 
In this opinion all distinguished na- 



Dr. Morton, of Philadelphia, who has devoted 



tific world, has 



has acquired a distinguishec 
try, but throughout the Scien 



Dr. Morton's facts are drawn from an examination of 
yyptian heads taken from 7 different repositories of the d 
rticularlv Memphis and Thebes. These heads were 



at Cairo, for 23 years. 



Mr. Gliddon 



[)r. Morton, before the American Phil- 
osophical Society, he first took a view of those nations with 
whom the Egyptians appear to have held intercourse, either 
for war or commerce, in the early epochs of their history; and 
amongst those whom he has been able to identify, from a com- 
parison of the heads figured in the work of Kossellini, are 
the Celts, the Scythians, the Pelasgic and Semetic nations, the 
Hindoos, Arabs and Negroes. He has classed the whole se- 
ries of heads in the following manner: 

1st Arcto-Egyptians — Under which designation are em- 
braced the purer Caucasian nations, as seen in the Seraetic 
tribes of Western Asia, and the Pelasgic communities of 
Southern Europe. 

2d Austro-Egyptians — In which the cranium blends the 
characters of the Hindoo and Southern Arab; which people, 
in the opinion of the anthor, were engrafted on the aboriginal 
population of Ethopia, and thus gave rise to the celebrated 
Meroite nations of antiquity. 

3d Negroloid crania, in which the osteological development 
corresponds to that of the Negro, while the hair, though harsh 
and sometimes wiery, is long and not wooly : thus presenting 
the combination of features which are familiar in the Mulatto 
rades of the present day. 



o 



Negr 



15 

In many crania, the Arcto- Egyptian, Austro-Egypfian, 
and Semetic characters are variously blended; while a lew al- 
so present traces of Negro lineage, modifying the features of 
the preceding types. 

The Caucasian Crania, in the whole, constitute 9 in 10; the 
Negroloid, about 1 in 14 — and out of the whole 100 skulls, 
there is but one unmixed Negro. 

A very striking fact too, is, that the pure Caucasian heads 
are found at Memphis, near the mouth of the Nile, and as you 
ascend the river into the interior of Africa and approach Nu- 
bia, the Caucasian character is gradually lost — they become 
mingled with Negro and other tribes. 

The author refers the blending of Arcto-Egy ptian and Aus- 
tral-Egyptian and other communii 



to 



tian 



1st The conquest by the Hykshos 



King 



Egyptians of all ranks were driven 



thiopia for a period of 260 years 

2d. The Ethiopian Dynasty of 3 Kings which lastec 

ars, beginning 719 years B.C. 

3d. The conquest by Cambyses B. C. 525, when the 



d 



vely disregarded 
period the people 



of Asia, Europe and Nigritia, were freely admitted 



E 



Morton's ethnographical researches, conjoined with the 

istoryand the monuments, have led him to draw 



the following conclusions: 



1st. That Egypt was originally peopled by the Caucasian 



race 



. That the great preponderance of heads, conforming in 
all their characters to those of the purer Caucasian nations, as 
seen in the Pelasgic and Semetic tribes, suggests the infer- 
ence that the valey of the Nile, derived its primitive civilized 
inhabitants from one of these sources; and that the greater pro- 
portion of this series of crania in Lower Egypt may, perhaps, 
serve to indicate the seats of early colonization. 

3d. That the Austral-Egyptian, or Meroite communities, 
were in a great measure derived from the Indo- Arabian stock: 
thus pointing to a triple Caucasian source for the origin of the 
Egyptians, when regarded as one people extending 
roe to the Delta. 

4th. That the Negro race exists in the catacombs in the 
mixed or Negroloid character; that even in this modified 




presence is comparatively unfrequent, and that if 

2 



16 

groes, as is more than probable, were numerous in Egypt, 
their social position was chiefly in ancient times what it yet is 

Servants and Slaves. 

Inde pendant of the bearing of many of these interesting 
facts, the conclusion to my mind, is irresistable, that the civili- 
zation of Egypt is attributable to these Caucasian heads; be- 
cause civilization does not now and never has as far as we 
know from history, been carried to this perfection by any oth- 
er race than the Caucasian — how can any reasoning mind 
come to any other conclusion? 

It is clear then that history, the Egyptian Monuments, her 
paintings and sculptures, the examination of skulls by Cnvier, 
Morton and others, Analogy, and every thing else connected 
with this country, combine to prove beyond the possibility of a 
doubt, that the Ancient Egyptian race were Caucasians. 

Positive historical facts prove too, that Egypt has been 
conquered in early times by various inferior tribes, and the 
blood of her people adulterated. Besides the conquest of the 
Hykshos, the Ethiopians, Persians and others, she has more 
recently been conquered by the Greeks, the Romans and 

Turks. 



could not 
which she 



wash out the black stain, both moral and physical, 

has received. 

Naturalists have strangely overlooked the effects of mixing 
races, when the illustrations drawn from the crossing of ani- 
mals speak so plainly — man physically is, but an animal at 
last, with the same physiological laws which govern others. 

This adulteration of blood is the reason why Egypt and the 
Barbary States nev er can again rise, until the present races 
are exterminated, and the Caucasian substituted. 

Wherever in the history of the world the inferior races have 
conquered and mixed in with the Caucasian, the latter have 
sunk into barbarism. 

Greece and Rome have been conquered and crushed to 
the earth by oppression, but'the blood of Greeks and Romans 



Still lives. 



vely pure, and the genius of 



Every now and then some one rises up, breaks throu 
tramels and shows that the Caucasian head is still there, 
have not the physical force to break the fetters which 
them, but they still have their Poets, Painters, Sculpto 

Philosophers. 

We nave no evidence that civilization has ever em 



17 



From Africa beyond Egypt, and we know that all modern at- 
tempts to carry civilisation into it have failed. 

When I was in Paris I attended the Hospitals every day 
in company with about a dozen young Egyptians, who were 
sent over by Mehamet Ali— nothing could be more evident 
than their mixed blood — some looked like mulattoes, others 
like the cross of Indian and white races. When I looked up- 
on them and saw the material with which Mehamet Ali had to 
work, 1 was convinced that Egypt's sun of glory was set, 
never again to rise. 

Analogy. — When we cast our eyes over the whole range 
of natural history, we find a surprising simplicity and uniform- 
ity in the laws of nature — a wonderful adaptation of things to 
the circumstances in which they are placed. This uniformity 
of laws often assists us immensely when we are wanting in 
facts in one branch — analogies drawn from others shed impor 

tant light. 

In illustration of the natural history of man for instance, an 



alogies have been drawn from the whole animal and vegitable 




kingdoms; many of these analogies are curious and interest- 
ing, and they are so numerous and varied as to afford strong 
arguments, both for and against the unity of the human race. 

tfoth animal and vegitable kingdoms are divided and su 
vided into genera, species and varieties. 

As we shall have frequent use for the term species, it will 
be well to define it before we proceed farther. 

We mean then by the term Species, a race of Animals or 
Plants, marked by peculiarities of structure, which have al- 
ways been constant and undeviating— two races are consider- 
ed specifically different, if they are distinguished from each 
other by some peculairities which one cannot be supposed 
to have acquired, or the other lost, through any known opera- 
tion of physical causes. 

The Horse and Ass, for example, are the same genus, but 



different species, because no physical causes could have pro- 
duced suck dissimilarity. 

Genus, is a more comprehensive term, it includes ail the 
species of a class; for example, the Ourang Outang, Apes, 
Baboons, &c, are all of one genus though different species. 

My belief too, is, that there is a Genus Homo, with its spe- 
cies and varieties. 

It would be almost an anomaly in nature if man should be 
restricted to one species. 

I will cite a few examples from the animal and vegitable 
kingdoms for illustration. 



18 

Naturalists have described 30 different specie* of Ape, sev- 
eral of the Baboon, and a number of the Monkey. This group 
is the nearest link to man, and when compared they do not 
differ more than the Caucasian, the Mongol, the Malay, the 
Indian and the Negro. 



Of the Genus Bqutis, there are 5 species, the Horse 



kind 



Wild Mule, the Quagga 



Cat 



I might thus go on through the whole animal kingdom 
Near the Cape of Good Hope there are 300 species < 



nd nowhere 



flowers, &c. 



H 



ege table kingdom — look at thi 

look at our fruits 




natural history proves another law 



of 



suited 



and 



Islands newly emerged from the ocean, without a s 
getation, soon become covered with plants, differer 
mts in any other part of the world, but showing a 
eness to those of the nearest mainland. 
Terra Australis. which is verv rernotelv situated 



stock of 



It contains 



entire genera of Animals, which have not been discovered 
elsewhere — animals too, which are very curious in their an- 
atomical and physiological characters — the different species 
of the Kangaroo, and many others. 

The Elephant, Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, Giraffe, Cam- 
el, Horse — most of the Ox kind belong to the old continent 



the Quagga and 



Hyenas, &c, to Asia and AfH 



None of the above animals were 



d 



Of the 28 species belonging to the Cat kind, it is very remar- 
kable that not one is common to the Old and New World. 

The Opossum, the Sloths, a new tribe of Monkeys, and 
many other animals and plants, are peculiar to America, as 
well as an immense number of organic remains. 

3 of Prit chard, (the great orthodox de- 
fender of the unitv of the human race.) "These various tribes 




spread 



different reerions of the world, mav be 



have given origin to peculiar kinds, adapted respect 
their organization, to subsist under the local circut 



19 
among which they appear first to have been called into exis- 



tence." 



Now I would ask, if this be a general law, by which nature 
is governed throughout all creation, is it reasonable that man 
alone should form an exception. 

None of these plants ana animals can be propagated out of 
the climate to which they are adapted by nature— -and man 
forms no exception to the general law. The white man can- 
not live in tropical Africa, or the African in the frigid zone. 

Wherever colonies of Europeans have been formed, in tem- 
perate countries, they have soon flourished, and the white pop- 
ulation has multiplied so fast, as to encroach upon the native, 
and in many instances, entirely supersede them. But in Af- 
rica, colonies of Europeans and Asiatics have dwindled away 
and become extinct. The coast of Zanguebar was colonized 
many centuries ago by Arabians, and afterwards by Portu- 
guese— -at a still earlier period by Phenicians. Other colo- 
nies have been formed in Mozambique, Quiola, Kongo, &c, 
but the climate has prevented population from flourishing and 
multiplying. Were it not for these facts we shouJd certainly 
see white colonies there like every where else, where fortune 
is to be gained. 

On the other hand, the proofs are quite as positive to show 
that the negro is equally unsuited to a cold climate. 

Though a constant influx of negro slaves takes place from 
Soudan into Turkey, it is without effect or impression. 

Herodotus tells us that there was once a colony of Black 



wooly headed Africans at Colchis, but they are extinct. 

No black race in short has been, or can be established at any 
great distance from the equator. 

Look at the bills of mortality in our northern cities, and you 



will see the proportion of deaths amongst the blacks, increas- 



ing as you go north, until you get to Boston, where the pro- 



portion is three to one compared to the whites. 

This has been attributed to their habits and condition, but 
if I had time I could prove positively, that climate there has its 
influence. 

I have in another place mentioned the fact, that a cold cli- 
mate so freezes their brains as to make them insane or idiotical. 

Prit chard, the great orthodox naturalist of England, denies 
that all the animals now on the eartb,could have descended from 



Noah's Ark. He says it is irreconcilable with Zoological re- 
searches, and in this opinion every naturalist must concur. 
He says further, "that it is no where asserted in the Mosaic 



history, and who can prove that the various nations of animals, 



2» 




20 

which have the centre of their abode, ami seem to have had 
the origin of their existence in distant regions, as Terra Aus- 
tralia, or South America, were not created since that Deluge, 
which the human race and the species of animals which were 

companions survived? This indeed seems to be the 
conclusion, which facts every day discovered, dispose us more 
and more to adopt." 

"It is known that the fossile remains of Animals, which have 
been discovered in various parts of the earth, and which ap- 
pear to be relics of the Anti-Deluvian world, chiefly belonged 
to species, different from those which now exist; these spe- 
cies were probably exterminated in that great catastrophe.' ' 

"Man escaped with the stock of animals peculiar to the re- 
gion in which he lived. After the deluge, when new regions 
emerged from the ocean, it is probable they were supplied 
with plants and animals suited to the soil and climate of each 
district." 

Why I would again ask, should man be made an exception 
to this general law] 

Pritchard goes on to say, "that it is not to be presumed, 
that these sacred books contain a narrative of all, that it has 
pleased providence to effect in the physical creation; but only 
his dispensations to mankind, and the facts with which man 
is concerned — and it was of no importance for man to be in- 
formed at what era New Holland began to contain Kanga- 
roos, or the woods of Paraguay, Ant eaters and Armadillos." 

It seems, says he, **to be fully proved, by geological re- 
searches, that repeated creations have taken place, and that 
the organized tribes in existence have more than once per- 
ished, to make room for a new order of beings. It seems 
probable, and in some instances evident, that these epochs or 
revolutions in nature, have been accompanied, or preceded by 
inundations and other catastrophes. Such events may have 
contributed to prepare the earth for supporting new tribes o£ 
organized creatures. After each of these changes in its phys- 
ical condition, it has given birth to races different from those 
which before existed, and adapted to the circumstances of its 
new state* We may therefore conclude, that after, the last 
deluge, a similar renewal of the animal and vegitable king- 
doms ensued." 

*'That this was really the fact, may be collected from an 
examination of the organic remains of the anti-del uvian world.*' 

AH naturalists admit the following facts: "The remains of 
animals found in the oldest strata, or those deposited in the 
earliest period, are known to display a very simple structure, 



SI 
and are very remote from the present forms. At successive 

periods, the nature of animals became more complete, or rath- 
er more complicate, and more approaching those at present 



in existence. Many of the species which existed betore the 



flood, are now extinct, and new ones have risen pp*— nearly 



all the carni vora for instance, are post deluvian " 

Now it will be seen by these extracts, that Mr. P. has been 




compelled to distort the Mosaic account to reconcile it 
positive, indisputable, scientific facts. He has abandoned the 
whole Mosaic account of the creation of the Heavens, the, 
earth, and every thing upon it, but man. 

And why should man alone be retained 1 Simply, because 
the facts have been wanting to establish distinct species. Mr 

Pritcbard has argued the question fairly — he has yielded ev- 
ery point in science which has been proven, and no doubt will 
give up the unity of the human race when sufficient facts can 
be adduced. He has at least, by his admissions, thrown the 
question fairly open for discussion. 

But we will pass on to some analogies which are more fa- 
miliar. 

Some very curious and striking analogies have been brought 
forward from the animal kingdom to prove, that physical 
causes, have produced changes in color, hair, form and in- 
stincts, quite as great as those which are seen in the human 
race — the varieties in Rabbits, Cats, Dogs, Oxen, Foxes, 
Fowls, &c. &c. have been cited. 

All the swine in Piedmont, are black; in Normnndy white; 
in Bavaria brown. The Oxen in Hungary are gray; in Fran- 
conia red. Horses and dogs in Corsica are spotted: the Tur- 
kies of Normandy are black, those of Hanover white, &c. 
The dray horse of London and the Shetland Poney, are the 
same species. The Wild Boar and Berkshire; the large cock 



and the Ban torn; the long legged Ox of the Cape of Good 
Hope, and the Durham, &c. 

Une of the most striking instances is the variety of Dogs, 
which are supposed to be of but one species. The New 
Foundland, the Bull, the Grey Hound, the Pointer, the Ter- 
rier, Poodle, &c, certainly differ in their heads, form, size, co- 
lor, hair, instincts, &c, as much as the different varieties of 
men — a more striking illustration of the effects of physical 
causes, could not be given. 

Now all these changes we freely admit, but does this prove 
that physical causes have the same power to change man ? If 
climate, food and other physical causes can thus change man, 
why, I would ask, have they not done it? And why cannot 



22 



the written history of the world for two thousand years ad- 
duce instances] 

The hu man race have been living in the same places where 
these mighty changes have been effected in animals, and still 
man is comparatively unchanged. Why in these countries are 
men so much alike and animals so different ? The answer is 
that human constitutions are less mutable, and men have the 



• II 



and means of protecting themselves by ho uses,clo thing 



fires, &c-> against the action of such causes. 

Why should all the asserted changes in the human race 
have taken place in ages beyond the reach of history. Will 
any one pretend that human nature is not the same now that it 
was 5,000 years agol And that the same physical causes have 
not been at work? 

Tradition speaks of migrations, floods, wars and great con- 
vulsions in nature-— it tells of fiery dragons, hydras, giants and 



changed his skin — even poetry and 



where are we told that the Ethiopian 



point 



2a 



LECTURE II. 





Physicajl Differences.— The Anatomical and 
ioal differences, between the Caucasian, the Malay, Mongol, 
pdian and Negro races, haye elicited a great deal of scientific 
research, and I might very well write an octavo on these 
points alone. Time, however compels me to restrict my lec- 
ture to a parallel between the Caucasian and. Negro races. I 
wish it farther to be understood, that my parallel will be limi- 
* J to the race of Negroes which we see in this country, and 




which I shall presently describe. There are many other 
tribes in Africa, which differ widely in color, physical and in- 
tellectual characters. 

When the Caucasian and Negro are compared, one of the 
t striking and important points of difference is seen in the 



fill 



conformation of the head. 

The head of the Negro is smaller by a full tenth — the fore- 
head is narrower and more receding, in consequence of which 
the anterior or intellectual portion of the brain is defective. 
The upper jaw is broader and more projecting — the under 
jaw inclines out, and is defioient in chin; the lips are larger and 
correspond with the bony structure; the teeth point obliquely 
forward and resemble in shape those of Carnivorous animal*; 
the bones of the head are thicker, more dense and heavy, and 
the same fact exists with regard to the other bones of the 

skeleton. 

Dr. Gall, in his laborious researches, has established the im- 
portant fact, which is now conceded, that there is in the ani- 
mal kingdom, a regular gradation in the form of the brain, 
from the Caucasian down to the lowest order of animals, and 
that the intellectual faculties and instincts are commensurate 
with the size and form.* 

In animals where the senses and sensual faculties predomi- 

+ 

2V<*#.— I beg leave here, once for all, to state that I have never studied 
and do not advocate the details of Phrenology, but no one doubts that the 
brain is the organ of intellect and instinct, and that the general facts of Phren- 
ology are true. 



24 

imte, the nerves coming off from the brain are large, and we 

find the nerves of the Negro larger than those of the Caucas- 
ian. 

In other portions of the skeleton, differences not less mark- 
ed, are presented. The arm of the African is much longer 
than in the Caucasian — a Negro of 5 feet 6 has an arm as Ion 
as a white man of 6 feet. The arm from the elbow to the han 
is much longer in proportion, than in the white man — hishand 
is longer, more bony and tendinous — the nails more project- 
ing and stronger. 

The chest of the negro is more compressed lalterally, and 




deeper through from before backwards*— the bones of the pel- 



vis in the male are more slender and narrow ; the muscles on 
the sides of the pelvis are less full f but more full posteriorly. 
In the two races the lower limbs are in their relative pro- 



lit 



rtion reversed— in their entire measurement, the legs of the 



African are shorter, but the thigh longer and flatter— the bones 
at the knee joint instead of being straight, are joined at an obtuse 
angle, pointing forward. The shape of the shin bone, calf, 



foot and heel, are familiar to you all.* 

Now it will be seen from this hasty sketch, how many 
points of resemblance Anatomists have established between 
the Negro and Ape. It is seen in the head and face, the arms 



and hands, the compressed chest, the bones and muscles of the 
pelvis, the flat long thighs, the forward bend of the knee, in 
the leg, foot and toes. In short, place beside each other av- 
arage specimens of the Caucasian, Negro and Ouran^ Outang, 
and you will perceive a regular and striking gradation — sub- 
stitute for the Negro a Bushman or Hottentot from the Cape 
of Good Hope, and the contrast is still stronger J 

"In the Bushman (says Lichtenstein) all the deformities of 
the race are seen in an exageroted degree: they ai*e extremely 
diminutive — 4 feet 6 inches high. Their flat nose, high cheek 

nes, prominent chin, and concave visage, give them much 
of the Apish character, which is increased by their keen, vivid 




iVte.— It has been asserted that each race shows instances of the phys 



ical characters which belong to the others. I admit that the best spe- 
cimens of Negroes are very like the inferior of the Caucasian; bnt when 



you compare extremes the argument fails — actual measurements show that 
Negroes never have heads so large and well formed as those of Cuvier 
and Dupuytren; and who ever saw a white man resemble the exag erated 
specimens of Negroes — the gradation seen in the old continent may de- 
pend upon the intermixture of races originally widely different; but ad- 
mitting the argument in its full force it amounts to nothing. The Wolf, 
Dog and Hyena, or Tiger and Panther, which are distinct species, present 
physical differences quite as difficult to detect. 



25 



eye, always on the alert— they spring from rock to rock witli 
the activity of Antelopes— sleep in nests which they form in 
bushes, just like bird's nests, but seldom pass two nights in the 
same place. They live by depredation, or by catching wild 
animals, such as serpents, lizards, ants, grass-hoppers, &c. 
They too, have humps on their backs like Dromedaries." 

The difference to an Anatomist, between the Bushman or 
Negro and the Caucasian, is greater than the difference in the 
skeletons of the Wolf, Dog and Hyena, which are allowed 
to be distinct species; or the Tiger and Panther. 

Now can all these deep, radical and enduring differences be 
produced by climate and other causes assigned] It is incum- 
bent on those who contend for such an opinion, to show that 
such changes either have taken place, or that similar changes 
in the human race are now in progress. 

It is now 1,700 years since the Jews were banished from 
their native country, and soon after this event a colony of them 
settled on the coast of Malabar, amongst a people whose color 
was black; they were visited a few years ago by Dr. Claudi- 
us Buchanan, who states in his travels, that in complexion, 
form and features, they still preserve the characteristics of 
the Jews of Europe — the natives too, are still unchanged* 

More than 1000 years ago, a colony of Persians were driv- 
en into India by religious persecution — they settled amongst a 
people of black complexion; like the Jews, they have been pre- 
vented by religious tenets, from intermarrying with the na- 
tives. Their descendants in that burning climate, we are 
informed by Col. Wilks, who is familiar with this people, are 
a fine race of men, perfectly Caucasian in complexion, form 
and feature — altogether unlike those around them. 

The same facts are observed in the Portuguese colonies in 
Mozambique and Zanguebar, on the Eastern Coast of Tropi- 
cal Africa. 

The Spanish settlements in Tropical America, and the En- 
glish settlements in the West Indies, present the same facts 
great numbers have died from the effect of climate — the com- 
plexion has lost its rudiness, and their skins have become swar- 



thy and bilious-^-their frames have become attenuated, be- 

*Note. — It appears by their records, which were considered by Dr- 
Buchanan, to be authentic, that they migrated to India soon after the des- 
truction of the Temple of Jerusalem by Titus, and mat they afterwards ob- 
tained grants of territory and privileges, of which they have documents bear' 
ing date in the year A. M. 4250, or A. D. 490. The black Jews, he 
states, are a mixed race, descended in great part from the natives of the 
country, whom they resemble in physical character. — Christian Research- 
§sin Asia. 



26 



cause nature never intended them for this climate; but their 
features are still the same. Their children are born fain And if 
carried to a temperate climate, would remain so. Every 
thing goes to prove that there is a limit to the effect of climate. 
The Caucasian though effected to a certain extent by cli- 
mate, cannot be transformed into a negro, or a negro into an 
Ourang Outang. 

The Moors have inhabited some parts of Tronical Africa 



from time immemorial 



exion. feature 



mation towards the Negro 



any thing else, have they made any appro xi 



Hindoos, the Jews, the Gipsies and 



tribes, afford 



time to dwell upon them. 



Africans were introduced 



the 8th or 9th generation is now amon 



and the race is unchanged. The Negroes have been improv 
ed by comforts and good feeding which they have been unac- 
customed to; but they are Negroes still. 

A large portion of Oceanica, where the climate is tetnper- 
ate and pleasant, is inhabited by Negroes, who no doubt, have 
dwelt there for ages. 

New South Wales extends beyond the 39th degree of south 
latitude, and many parts of it have a remarkably healthy and 
delightful climate, yet the following is the description given by 
Malt-Brun of its natives: 

"New South Wales seems to offer three native varieties of 
inhabitants, all belonging to the race of Oceanean negroes. In the 
neighborhood of Glass House Bay, the savages have large heads, 
which in shape resemble those of the Ourang Outang; their ve- 
ry limited intellects, hairy bodies, and habitual agility in climb- 
ing trees, seem to bring them very near to the Ape character." 

What too are the facts with regard to the aborigines of 

America? I will here give some facts from Dr. Morton's 
Crania Americana. 

Although, says he, the Americans possess a pervading and 
characteristic complexion, there are occasional and very re- 
markable deviations, including all the tints from a decided 
white to an unequivocally black skin. He shows also, by nu- 
merous authorities, that climate exerts a subordinate agency 

producing these diversified hues. The tribes which wan- 



der along the burning plains of the equinoctial region 



darker sKins than the mountaineers of 

Again, the Puelches and other inhabitants of the Megallanic 

region, beyond the 55th degree of South Latitude, are ahso- 



21 



Macobios and Tobas. who 



While th 



tocu 



solutely darker than the Abi pones, 

are many degrees nearer the Equ 

dy 8 are of a clear brown color, and sometimes nearly white 

at no great distance from the Tropic; and moreover, while 



the Ghiyacas, under the line are characterised by a fair 



#1M 



degree of S 

25 degr 



Charruas, who are 



fill 



black, inhabit the 50th 



tude; and the yet blacker Califbrnians 




uator 



er all, he adds, 
these differences in complexion are extremely partial, forming 
mere exception* to the primitive and national tint, that charac- 
terises these people from Cape Horn to the Canada** 

The cause of the anomalies is not readily explained ; that 
it is not climate, is sufficiently obvious; and whether it arises 
from partial immigrations from other countries, remains yet to 
be decided." 

With respect to the Polynesian tribes it has been remarked 
by Marsden and Crawford, that the heat of the climate seems 
to have no connection with the darknesss of the complexion ; 
the fairest natives in most instances, are those situated nearest 



Eq 



tribes 



history 



the com 



does not become regularly lighter, as we recede from 



the intertropical clime 
who are the most distant from 
The Tartars are brown and 
same latitude. 



of VanDieman's Land 



of the white and 



races differ widelv in their anatomical and 



The skin 



details on this point would here be out of pi 



the 



second 



called the cuticle, and is thin and transparent— the 
\ a vascular net work, called the Rete Mucosum, and 



it is on this that the color of the skin depends — it secretes 



black pigment or paint, which giv< 
gro, and it will from this be seen tl 
caused by the rays of the sun prod 



t__ 




door laborer, who is exposed 



we express it. tanned 



there 



becomes dark, but 



of this pigment secreted, and 



father is not transmitted to the child 



chang 



in 



Another striking fact is seen in negro children— when born 
they are almost as fair as a white child, but in a very short time 
and without any exposure to the sun, this black pigment is 



3 



28 



secreted, and the skin becomes black — here is a function dif- 
ferent from any in the whites. 

The skin of the African too, is known to generate less heat, 
and he therefore stands a hot climate better, and a cold 




than the white man. 

We areaH familiar also, with the bouquet odour of a negro's 
skin, which cannot be accounted for by accidental causes. 

In this discussion great weight has been given to the admit- 
ted fact, that the color of the skin in the old world, is genera 1- 
S* found to accord with climate. The white man is found m 
a cold and temperate regions, the black in the torrid zone, 

the intermediate complexions between the two. 
There are however, as we have seen, so many exceptions 

to the rule as to destroy it. 

Moreover, if different pairs of the human race, of different 
complexions and physical conformations, were placed by the 
creator in the positions best suited to their organization, they 



would naturally multiply and spread — after a time the differ 
ent races would come in contact, mingle together and form in- 
termediate varieties. In fact this is a picture of what is now 



the 



been often struck bv the 



resemblance of the colored Creoles in New Orleans, to the 
Mongol race — many of them have the high cheek bones, 
oblique eyes and other characteristics. 

If the position I take be true, that the human race is de- 
scended trom several or many original pairs, it is reasonable to 
suppose that there is not at present a single unmixed race on 
the face of the earth.* 

Look at the population of the United States! From how 



many nations have we received crosses! Read l 
tory of Great Britain, France, Germany, Egypt, 



iy 



now 



whole world as far as we have records 
what blood predominates in each nation? 

Much stress has been laid upon the variety of complexions, 
hair and conformation, seen in what is supposed to be the same 
race. Take England for example, where you find people of 
very different features and forms — the complexions vary from 
fair to tawney, and the hair from blond to black. 

These facts have been cited to show that varieties spring 



*N&e. — It has been supposed that the varieties of the human race, were 
produced attheTower of Babel , when the confusion of tongue* occurred; 
but so remwkable ajpHJccurrence would have been mentioned. We might 
just as well suppose feat some were changed into Monkeys, while ethers 



facts 



hanged into negroes. In arguing a question of this kind we want 



29 

up in the same race, which if separated and allowed to Multiply 
alone, would make permanent varieties as distinct as the Cau- 
casian, Mongol and Negro. But I would ask, how much of 
-this may not be attributable to mingling of races originally 

different? 

Every man conversant with the breeding of Horses* Cattle, 

Dogs and sheep, is aware of the effect of the slighest taint of 
impure blood — there are no data by which we can determ* 
the length of time which it will endure. An English turf- 
man will not own a horse whose pedigree cannot be traced 
back to the remotest records of pure blood, and what is re- 
markable, no horse has ever been the progenitor of successful 
runners, who has been kiwwn to have one drop of impure bl 
in his veins. The celebrated race horse Plenipo f is a facsimi- 
le of one of his ancesters 8 generations back, and unlike the in- 
termediate links. A strong likeness is sometimes remarked in 




triii 



race horses, to the Godolphin Arabian, who was brought to 
England, over a hundred years ago. Look at the family por- 
traits of the Bourbon family, and many others in Europe— 
though they have been intermarrying with other families for 
generations, the likeness is still preserved. 

A very curious fact may be cited to prove how strong an ira 



pression is made upon the offspring, by a cause too slight to 
be conceived of. it is known to be a fact that a mare has pro* 
duced a colt from a Quagga, and her next colt from a horse 
has been striped like a Quagga, though having no relation- 
ship whatever that we can imagine. 

Man and animals are doubtless governed by the same gen- 
eral physiological laws, and no one can calculate the results 
which may arise from crossing races. My belief is, that the 
human race are descended from original stocks, which were 
essentially different — that these original stocks were placed 
by an Allwise Creator in the climate and situation best suited 
to their organization* 

The black man was placed in Tropical Africa, because he 
was suited to this climate and no other. The white man was 
placed in Europe and Asia, for the same reason. I have else- 
where jpven facts to prove this. The statistics of our north- 
ern cities show that the proportion of deaths amongst the 
blacks, compared to the whites, is nearly three to one. Facts 
of a different nature and not less astounding, have recently 
been published in the Southern Literary Messenger, taken 
from authentic statistics* 

Among the slave population of Louisiana, the insane and 
idiots number 1 in 4,310; in South Carolina 1 in 3,477; in Vir- 



30 ] 



ginia 1 in 1,299; bat what a different picture is presented at 
the North — in Massachusetts there is in that class of popula- 
tion, 1 insane or idiot, in 43; and in Maine, 1 in 14 ! ! ! ! ! 

New much of this is attributable to climate, but not all as I 
■hall show hereafter. In the Northern cities there is a large 



proportion of Mulattoes, who I regard and shall attempt to 



prove, are Hybrids, These Hybrids we know to be shorter 
tired than the whites or blacks, and probably more prone to 
insanity-— but the facts stand, and construe them as you please, 
they go strongly to prove the existence of distinct species in 
the human race. 

Question op Hybrids. — A hybrid offspring is the strong- 
est and most unequivocal proof of the distinctness of spe- 
cies. The mule for instance, is the hybrid offspring of the 
horse and ass; its inability to produce offspring, and other pe- 
culiarities, leave no doubt that the parent stocks are distinct 

species* 

In an article which I published in the July number of the 
American Medical Journal, I brought forward a number of 
facts to prove that the Mulatto was a hybrid, and as a neces- 
sary inference, that the white and negro races were now, if not 
always, distinct species. As these facts are very intimately 
connected with the subject of the present lecture, I will here 
recapitulate them with some additions, and will first give an 
extract from a very sensible article published in the spring of 
*43, in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, under sig- 
nature of "philanthropist/* 

The writer says: From authentic statistics and extensive 
corroborating information, obtained from sources to me of un» 
questionable authority, together with my own observations, I 
am led to believe that the following statements are substanti- 
ally correct: 

1st. That the longevity of the Africans is greater than that 

of the inhabitants of any other part of the Globe. 

2d. That Mulattoes, (i. e. ) those born of parents one being 
African and the other white of Caucasian, are the shortest liv- 
ed of any class of the human race. 

3d. That the Mulattoes are not more liable to die under the 
age of 25, than the whites or blacks; but from 25 to 40, their 
deaths are as 10 tol, of either the whites or blacks between those 
ages— from 40 to 55 the deaths are 50 to 1, and from 55 to 
70, 100 to 1. 

4th. That the mortality of the free people of color is more 
than 100 per cent greater than that of slaves. 

5th That those of unmixed extraction in the free states, are 



31 



not more liable to sickness, or premature death, than the whites 
of their rank and condition in society; but that the striking 
mortality, so manifest amongst the free people of color, is in 
every community and section of the country, invariably con- 
fined to the Mulattoes. 

"It was remarked by a gentleman from the south, eminent 
for his intellectual attainments, and distinguished for his cor- 
rect observation, and who has lived many years in the South- 
ern States, that he did not believe that he had ever seen a mu- 
latto of 70 years of age."* 

From a correspondence published in the Boston statesman, 
hi April last, are taken the following statistics: 

In a colored population of 2,634,348 including free blacks, 
there are 1,980 over 100 years of age; whereas there are but 
647 whites over 100, in a population of 14,581,000. 

Dr. Niles in a pamphlet published in 1827, gave a compar- 
ative statement of mortality in the cities of Philadelphia, New 
York and Baltimore, deduced from official reports of the 
Boards of Health of the respective cities, from which it ap- 

f>ears that in the years 1823-4-5 and 6, the deaths were as fol- 
ows: 

New York. Philadelphia. Baltimore. 
Whites, lin40 1 in 31,82 1 in 44,29 

Free blacks, 1 in 18 1 in 19,91 1 in 32 



Slaves, 



lin77 



In Boston the number of deaths annually, among the color- 
ed population, is about 1 in 15, and there are fewer pure 
blacks in this city than any other. "The same comparative 
mortality between mulattoes and blacks exists in the Westln- 

Note.— One of my friends who differs from my views on this subject, af> 
ter my lecture said to me that 1 had not handled this part of my subject 
fairly — I omitted unintentionally, to mention one or two females in Mo- 
bile, beyond the age of 70. I admit the fact, one of them is probably not 
far from 90 — this woman is a Creole, and in my article in the Medical Jour- 
nal, I remarked that there was a race about Mobile and New Orleans, a 
mixture of Spanish and French blood with the Negro, which presented 
a different appearance from the Anglo Saxon cross — their complexions 
are more of a copper hue, (not that chalky white of the Carolina and Vir- 
inia Mulattoes) and they are altogether a better looking and a more har- 




y race. To what extent the law of Hybrids prevails, or what affinities 
and repulsions exist between particular races, is a subject yet to be inves- 
tigated. I have enquired all over Mobile for a Male Mulatto of 70, and I 
cant find one . I have asked a great many gentlemen lately if they had ev- 
er seen a mulatto in the interior or m the old States 70 years old, and they have 
doubted; but when I asked if they had ever seen one of 80 or 90, thty said un- 
hesitatingly, they could not remember one. Pritchard mentions a mulat- 
to of Fredericktown, United States, of 180 years old. I doubt the fact; 
hut iftrue anomalies prove nothing. 

3* 



32 | 





dies and Guaiana, where unfavorable social causes do not op- 
erate against the Mulattoes, as in the United States/ 1 

Fifteen years professional intercourse and observation Have 
led me to conclusions which correspond very closely with 
those of Philanthropist. I would add: 

1st. That the mulattoes are intermediate in intelligence be- 
tween the blacks and whites. 

2d, That they are less capable of undergoing fatigue and 
hardships, than the blacks or whites. 

3d. That the mulatto women are particularly delicate, 
subject to a variety of chronic diseases. 

4th. That the women are bad breeders and bad nurse 
many do not conceive — most are subject to abortions, and a 
large portion of the children die young in the southern States. 

5th That the two sexes when they intermarry, are less pro- 
lific than when crossed on one of the parent stocks. 

6th That Negroes and mulattoes are exempt in a surprising 
degree from yellow fever. 

The subject of hybrids, is a very curious one, on which 
much might be said, but we have space only for a few gener- 
al remarks. 

There are a great variety of hybrids, running through the 
whole chain of animated nature, in both animal and vegetable 
kingdoms. Some hybrids do not breed — as the Mule for ex- 
ample. There are rare instances of their having propa 
when crossed back, on one of the parent stocks. There are 
other hybrids, which do propagate perfectly — as the offspring 
of the Goat and Ewe — the Goldfinch and Canary bird — the 
Cygnoides (Chinese Goose) and the common Goose, &c. &c. 
Those hybrids, (which do breed) when bred together, 
have a tendency to run out, and change back to one of the pa- 
rent stocks — the hybrid geese for instance, if kept alone, ae- 
generate into common geese in a very few generations. This 
has been remarked too, in the mulattoes of the West Indies, 
and there are now families in Mobile from the same parents, 
some of whom are nearly black, and others nearly white; where 
there is every reason to believe that the mothers nave been faith- 
ful to their husbands. 

Another general law laid down by naturalists, is, that the 
hybrid derives its size and internal structure principally from 
the mother; a striking example of which is given in the mule. 

The mule or offspring of the Mare and Ass, is a large and 
powerful animal, having the internal organization of the moth- 
er. The Bardeau, or hinny, on the contrary, (the offspring of 




33 



the Horse and Jenny) is a small and coroparati 



animal 



and other Naturalists assert also, that in hybrids 
mbles the father. A familiar illustration may 



head res< 

again seen in the Mule. The offspring of the Ass and Stare, 
has the long ears, large coarse head, expression and other pe- 
culiarities of his dignified progenitor. In the Bardeau, on the 
contrary the head of the horse is preserved — it is long and lean, 
with short ears. This law has an important bearing on the 
subject now before us. 

It is well settled by naturalists, that the brain of the Negro, 
when compared with the Caucasian, is smaller by a tenth, 
and is particularly defective in the anterior or intellectual 
lobes, and that the intellect is wanting in the same proportion. 
In the white race the fact is notorious, that the child derives 
its intellect much more from the mother than the father.— it is 
an old remark that a stupid mother never poduces an intelli- 
gent family of children. Look the world over and ask who 
are the mothers of the eminent men. and it will be found that 



there are few exceptions to the rule that the mothers are above 



and 



llU 



• II 



m far above mediocrity. 

rtant law of nature is reversed when the 



man is crossed upon the Negresse or Indian woman — the law 
of hybrids is shown at once — in the offspring the brain is en« 
larged, the facial angle increased, and the intellect improved 
in a marked degree. Every one at the south is familiar with 
the fact that the mulattoeshave more intelligence than negroes, 
make bad slaves, and are always leaders in insurrections. 



and Lone, the historians of 




unhesitatingly, that the male and female mulatto do not { 
duce together so many children, as when they are united 



Neg 



I am credibly 



formed that these facts are very strikingly verified in New 
Orleans, where there is a mixture of the races to great extent. 
I am told that it is not uncommon to see a family run out so 
completely, as to leave estates without heirs to claim them. 

I nave called attention in another part of my lecture, to 
some interesting statistics to show the effect of cold climate 
and social condition combined in producing idiocy and insan- 
ity in the free blacks of the northern States. I have no facts 
yet to ground an opinion upon, but I have little doubt that it 
will be found that these effects, like disease and earlv deaths. 



are confined mostly to the mulattoes 
Maine, lin 14, and in Massachusetts 
ots. of the colored population. 



I have shown that in 



34 ] 

As different hybrids are acknowledged to be governed by 
different laws, is it not reasonable to believe that the human 
hybrid may also have its peculiar laws? — may not one of these 
laws be (which is a reasonable inference from foregoing data) 
that the mulatto is a degenerate, unnatural offspring, doomed 
by nature to work out its own destruction. The statistics of 
Philanthropist prove that the mulattoes are shorter lived, and 
it is an every day remark at the South, that they are more li- 
able to be diseased and are less capable of endurance than 
either whites or blacks of the same rank and condition. 

What then could we expect in breeding from a faulty stock; 
a stock which has been produced by a violation of nature's 
laws, but that they should become more and more degenerate 
in each succeeding generation? We know that the parent 
will transmit to the child, not only his external form, character, 



perament, &c, but diseases, through many 



as 



&c. Why 
then may not that defective internal organization which leads 
to ultimate destruction exist in the mulatto? I believe that if 
a hundred white men and one hundred black women were put 
together on an Island, and cut off from all intercourse with the 
rest of the world, they would in time become extinct. 



has 
Quinteroon is arrived 



that when the grade of 
>f black blood is lost and 



they cannot be distinguished from the whites. Now if this be 



cease 



i - - — - - 

point of mixture is arrived 



passed 



most ol my lite in places where the two races have been ming- 
ling for 8 or 9 generations, I have rarely if ever met an indi- 
vidual tainted with negro blood, in whom I could not detect 



dime 



grades should be extreme 



how else can the fact be accounted for. 



and sterility 



Virey, a distinguished French naturalist, states that the 



d women of New Hoi 



land 



been mixing together 



from time immemorial, and we have not yet any facts from 



which to for 



there 



affinities between certain races or species which make them 



aw 



brids prevails. This remark applies to other parts of the world 
as well as Africa. 
Moral and Intellectual — Great as the physical differences 



35 
have been shown to be, between the races of rae 



and moral desp 



be the 



already alluded 



he fact that the brain is known 
mind of man. and the instinct of 



animals depend, and that the perfection of those faculties 
commensurate with the perfect organization of this organ. 
There is a marked difference between the heads of the Cau- 
casian and the Negro, and there is a corresponding difference 
no less marked in their intellectual and moral qualities. 

The brain of the Negro, as I have stated, is, according to 



the Caucas 



and 




rtion of the brain, which is known to be the seat of the high- 
faculties. History and observation, both teach that in ac- 
cordance with this defective organization, the Mongol, the Ma- 
lay, the Indian and Negro, are now and have been in all ages 
and all places, inferior to the Caucasian. 

Look at the world as it now stands and say where is civili- 
zation to be found except amongst the various branches of the 
Caucasian race? 

Take Europe and start in the freezing climate of Russia, 
and come down to the straights of Gibralter, and you find not 
a solitary exception, not one that excites a doubt. 

Take Asia in the same way, and the only approximation to 



found 



Mongol 
she 



tribes. Take China which is the : ....... g i 

has for centuries had stability in her government, and many 
of the arts have been carried to a high state of perfection, but 
take her religion, her laws, her government, her literature, 
and how does the comparison stand] The most you can say 
is, that the Chinese are an intermediate link between the Ne- 
gro and Caucasian. 

Take Africa next and the picture presented is truly deplo- 
rable — with the exception of Egypt, and theBarbary States, 
which were in their palmy days occupied by Caucasian colo- 
nies, and now by their mixed descc 



Good Hope, a single record 



/ 1 W 

Mediterranean to the Cape 



that civilization has ever existed] Whe 
Memphis, her Thebes, her Rome, her At 



their 



dark as 



Carthage, once the proud rival of Rome, has 



cited as an instance of what a negro race is capable; but we 
now know that Carthage, like Egypt, was a Caucasian colony 




36 

from Asia, and has been constantly going downwards since 
her people have been conquered and adulterated in blood by 

n hordes, 

Cyprian, Augustine, Hannibal, -35sop, Euclid and others, 
have been brought up as evidences of African intellects; but 
all history would prove that they were as different from the 
genuine Negro, as they were from the American Indian. 

Let us next look nearer home — America when discovered by 
Columbus, was populated by millions of Aborigines from one 
extreme to the other — taking in the whole range of latitude. 
Much has been written about the ruined cities of Central 



America, and endless speculations have been indulged in re- 
specting their antiquity, the people who built them, their de- 
gree of civilization, tyc. 

From the accumulated information of Spanish historians, 
and from the laborious researches of Stephens, we are forced 
to believe that these cities were built by the same people who 
inhabited these countries when they were conquered by Cor- 
tez and the Pizarros. And what was their condition then? 
they lived in the cities which they had built and which are now 
in ruins. What was the condition amongst them of the arts, 
sciences, and literature? What their religion, government 
and laws? Every thing proves that they were miserable im- 
beciles, very far below the Chinese of the present day in eve- 
ry particular. 

There is nothing in the whole history of romance, so rich 
in interesting incident as the conquest of these countries. — 
Cortez landed in Mexico with only 500 men, and determined 
to conquer or die, he burned his own ships to cut off all hope 
of retreat; he then started off for the city of Mexico, and after 



fighting his way with his little band, through millions of this 



miserable race, he entered Mexico, seized Montezuma in his 
palace and threw him into chains. The conquest of Peru is 
still more interesting if possible, but this is not the place to 
dwell on such topics. I merely allude to it to show what the 
population were, and to show that 500 Caucasian arras and 
heads were worth more than millions of these miserable 
creatures. 

Many of the remains of this people are stupendous and show 
considerable Architectural skill, but my conviction is that too 
much importance has been attached to Architectural remains. 
The talent of construe tiveness may be developed in a very high 
degree, but without the higher faculties ot comparison and 
causality necessarily being in proportion. The beaver, many 
birds, and insects show this talent in a surprising degree. 



37 



Head the Natural history of the Honey Bee, and you will i 
things almost as remarkable as any thing we have spoken 
in Central America — Chiapas. Yucatan, Mexico, &c. 



of 



Hi 



The Queen Bee when she passes through her dominio 
wed to by her subjects with all the respect and subrais 

~~ 3tern Princess. If the Queen Bee dies 



news is spread throughout the hive — all is consternation and 
commotion until another is elected and quietly seated on the 



throne — if there is no suitable candidate, an egg is chosen and 



laced in an enlarged cell, and as soon as the infant Q 
Latched, she is fed on a rich and peculiar kind of food. A 
Queen is thus reared who is of larger size, and of entirely dhTer- 
ent form and appearance from the populace. The drones 
too, and the laboring class have their appropriate duties as- 

gned them, which they perform with a regularity and 



actness unknown in the 



dwellings of 



constructed on a regular plan and on perfect mathe- 
matical principles. If a part of the boney-comb is cracked by 



the interference of man, the laborers are called up and set 
work to repair the injury — a prop is constructed with all the 
science of a Christopher Wren, or Michael Angelo; in short, 
every thing in the history of the Bee shows a reasoning power 



of that of a Mexican 



and 




of the Caucasian show in all climes 
the fetters of bad government, and 



he takes up the march of civilization and presses onward — the 
principle of action within him is like the life in the acorn — take 
an acorn which has laid in a box for a thousand years and 
plant it in a congenial soil, it sprouts at once and grows into the 
majestic oak. 

History cannot designate the time when the Caucasian was 
a savage — Caucasian races have often been plunged by cir- 
cumstances into barbarism, but never as far as we know, into 



savageism 



Oceanic Negr 



appears to belong exclusively to the 




H 



and perhaps the Caribs; but history does not tell us when and 
where the Caucasian has gorged his appetite on human flesh 
and blood . 

We can carry back the history of the Negro (though imper- 
fectly) for 4,000 years: we know that he had all the physical 
characteristics then which he has now, and we have 
grounds for believing that he was morally and intellect 
the same then as now. One generation does not take u] 
ilization where the last left it and carry it on as does the 
casian — there it stands immovable; they go as far as in 




38 

extends and no farther. Where, or when I would ask, has a 
negro left his impress upon the age in which he lived? Oan 
any reasoning mind believe that the Negro and Indian have 
always been the victim of circumstances* No, nature has en- 
dowed them with an inferior organization, and all the powers 
of earth cannot elevate them above their destiny. 

Imperfect as the civilization of St. Domingo now is, if you 
were to abstract the white blood which exists amongst them 
they would sink at once into savagism. 

The Indian is by nature a savage, and a beast of the forest 



like the Buffalo — can exist in no other state, and is exterminated 



by the approach of civilization. You cannot make a slave of 







him like a negro, his spirit is broken and he dies like a wild 
animal in a cage. 

In spite of all that has been said to the contrary, facts prove 
every attempt to educate and civilize the Indian, but 
makes him more worthless and corrupt — they learn readily 
all the vices of the white man but never his virtues. Read 
the history of the Indians in New York and New England 
numerous and well directed efforts were made to better their 
condition — where are they now — what has philanthropy done 

let the graves of the Indian speak. Not one has been enough 
civilized to write the history of his unfortunate race. 

Now let us see what truth there is in the boasted civilization 
of the Cherokee and Chickasaw; their destiny too is fulfilled, 
and their days numbered. It will be seen that whatever im- 
provement exists in their condition is attributable to a mixture 
of races Their Chiefs and Rulers are whites and mixed 
bloods, and the full blood Indian is now what he always has 
and always will be. 

I will here give an extract from a very able report of Con- 
gress by the committee on Indian affairs: "The number of 
those who control the government of the Cherokees, are un- 
derstood not to exceed 25 or 30 persons* These together 
with their families, and immediate dependants and connexions, 
may be said to constitute the whole commonwealth, so far as 
any real advantage may be said to attend their new system of 
government. Besides this class also, which embraces all the 
large fortune holders, their are about 200 families constituting 
the middle class. This class is composed of the Indians of 
mixed blood, and white men with Indian wives. All of them 
have some property and may be said to live in some degree 
of comfort. The committee are not aware that a single Indi- 
an of unmixed blood belongs to the two higher classes of the 
Cherokees. The third class of the free population is compos- 



39 

■ 

ed of Indians properly so denominated, who like their breth- 
ren of the red race every where else, exhibit the same charac- 
teristic traits of unconquerable indolence, improvidence and 
inordinate love of ardent spirits." 

George Guess, the Cherokee Cadmus, has been brought 
forward as an instance to prove the equality of the Indian 
with the Caucasian intellect. He saw a man reading a letter 
and as soon as he conceived the idea that letters could thus 
be made signs of ideas, he determined to make his own a 
written language. He accordingly shut himself up in his hut 
for several months — invented an alphabet and put it in prac- 
tice This was certainly a very remarkable effort of genius; 
but the father of this Cadmus, was a Scotchman,— a very im- 
portant fact which has been omitted by most of those who have 
discoursed so pathetically about Indians. 

If I had time I could multiply the proofs of the moral and 
intellectual inferiority of the Negro and Indian when compar- 
ed with the Caucasian. 

Affinity of Languages and Religions. — Volumes have 
been written on the affinity of languages and religions, to prove 
the common origin of races; but to my mind nothing can be 
more fallacious— the faintest resemblances in grammatical con- 
struction, or in particular words, have been seized with avidi- 
ty and confidently put forth as evidence of a common origin. 
Is it not, however, more reasonable to believe, that in ancient 
times (as in the present) the nations who were most civilized, 
stamped their characters, both in language and religion, upon 
the inferior tribes with whom they held communication. We 
loose sight too much of the fact, that human nature has al- 
ways been the same, and are too apt to believe that the present 
generations are wiser than their progenitors, and that impor- 
tant modifications now exist in men and customs which have 

not existed before. 

Egypt is the earliest point of civilization, and from her 
Greece and Rome drew their religions, and much of their lan- 
guages. In their turns Greece and Rome conquered the world 
and spread their languages and customs wherever they went. 
When Egypt had the power to conquer all the nations around 
her — to build the cities of Memphis and Tbebea— to erect the 
Pyramids and make Astronomical calculations — when too she 
was sufficiently versed in maratime knowledge to carry on 
commerce with the East Indies, can we doubt that her religion 
and language were scattered over the known world ? There 
are also strong reasons for believing that America was not un- 
known to the Ancient Egyptians. 

4 




40 

Look at die untiring labors of Christian Miasionarie 
are planting our language and religion in every uncivilized 

nation on earth. 

If a great physical or moral revolution should again occur 
in the world, like many which have occurred, it might be as- 
sumed that the Negro colonists in Liberia are descended from 
the English, because their language and religion are the same. 

This question however, is settled by the fact that xhere are 
languages in Africa which have no affinity with any other. 

Recapitulation. — 1. I have shown that it is proven be- 
yond a doubt, that instead of one, there have been many crea- 
tions, and that each suceessi ve creation has placed upon the 
earth entire new Genera, and species of Animals and plants, 
different from those which existed before. 

2. I have shown that there is good reason to believe that 
there have been creations in the Animal and Vegetable king- 
doms since the flood of Noah. 

3. I have shown that these facts do not necessarily conflict 
with the Old or New Testament. 

4. I have shown by historical facts that Negroes existed 
4,000 years ago with the same physical characteristics which 
belong to them now. 

5. I have shown, that though it may exist, no relationship 
can be traced between them and Noah's family. 

6. I have shown that all history proves that the Negro nev- 
er has nor never can live out of a warm climate, or the white 
man in Tropical Africa. 

7. I have shown that the Caucasian and Negro differ in 
their Anatomical and Physiological characters, and that both 
written history and natural history prove that these differences 
could not be produced by climate and other physical causes. 

8. I have shown by Analogies from th 3 vegetable and An- 
imal kingdoms, that there ought to be different species in the 
human race. 

9. I have shown that there now exists and has existed, as 
far as history speaks, a marked moral and intellectual dispari- 
ty between the races, and that a high state of civilization nev- 
er has existed in any other than the Caucasian race. 

10. I have shown that there are good grounds for believing 
that the varieties of men seen in any particular country, and 
the physical approximation seen in different tribes, originate 
in the mingling of different races. 

11. I have shown that similarity in language and religion 
proves nothing. 

12. I have shown that there are strong facts to prove that 
the Mulatto is a hybrid. 



41 

Now if I have not fully demonstrated each and all of these 
ftitions, I think I have brought forward facts enough to prove 
that I have rational grounds for believing in the truth of the 
proposition with which I set out, viz: That there is a Genus, 



Man, comprising two or more species — that physical causes 



• It 



cannot change a white man into a negro, and that to say this 
change has been effected by a direct act of providence, is an 
assumption which cannot be proven, and is contrary to the 
great chain of Natures Laws. 

The question will no doubt be asked cui bono? for what 
useful end has this vexed question of the Unity of Man, been 
torn open? In reply I would say that this is not a question 
for mere idle discussion, but one involving others of deep Po- 
litical, Moral and Religious import. 



If there be several species 01 the human race — if these spe- 




cies differ in the perfection of their moral and intellectual en- 
dowments — if there be a law of nature opposed to the ming- 
ling of the white and black races — 1 say it all these things 
true, what an unexplored field is opened to the view of the 
Philanthropist! ! Is it not the Christians duty to inquire into 
this subject! 

That the Negro and Indian races are susceptible of the same 
degree of civilization that the Caucasian is, all history would 
show not to be true — that the Caucasian race is deteriorated 
by intermixing with the inferior races is equally true. 

The white and black races are now living together in the 
United States under circumstances wjiich, if we may judge by 
the signs of the times cannot endure always, and it is time for 
the Philanthropist to do as I have done, look the question bold- 
ly in the face. What future course will be the wisest and 
most humane, I must leave to wiser heads than mine; but of 
this I am convinced, that nothing wise can be done without giv- 



mg due weight to the marked differences which exist between 
the races. 

Some no doubt will be disposed to censure me for the free- 
dom with which I have handled this question, and for oppos 
ing opinions which time has rendered venerable and sacred; 
but to me the laws of God, written in the Book of Nature are 
more venerable, and truth more sacred than all which emi- 
nates from erring Man. 

"All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee; 

All chance, Direction, which thou canst not see; 

All Discord, Harmony not understood; 

All partial Evil, universal Good. 

And spite of Pride, in erring Reason's spite, 

One truth is clear, Whatever is, is Right. 



42 1 



While niy pamphlet is passing through the press the January number of 

the American Journal of Medical Sciences came to hand. It contains an 
article by Dr. Edward Jarvis, on "Insanity among the colored population 
of the free States" in which he points out important errors in the census of 
the United States, which contain the statistics from which I have drawn 
my facts on this point. How far the Strictures of Dr. Jarvis are correct 
I do not know, but admitting them, it would seem as if climaU still shows 
its influence — but I say once more, I have no cherished theory to sustain: 
let facts be examined, let us have the truth, the whole truth and nothing but 
the truth. 



43 



APPENDIX, 



a 



Company, viflanous company hath been the spoil of me." 



I will now add to my crime of heresy, by turning Judas 

mv teachers* I should be ashamed to make j 




lit 



betraying 

an acknowledgment, but I confess honestly that I was amazed 
at the objections which some have made to my lectures; for 
so deep have I been plunged in iniquity, that I did not know 
it was a sin to believe in the truths of Geology and Nutural 

History. 

nature to desire com pan 



in misfortune, and I will here cite a few distinguished 
viduals who have passed for good christians in other pa 
the world, but who would be counted as heretics in the 
city of Mobile. I could add the names of Cuvier, 4 Laj 
Herschell, Bishop Brinklv. and a host of other names who 



a 



book. 



field of science, but my 



It mav be said that none of these distinguished men have 



dmitted the existence of species in the human race*-— granted 
but they have admitted my other positions in Geology and 
Natural History, to which exceptions have been taken, and 
have always been ready to hear new facts or to investigate 
any scientific question. 

Rev. William Buckland, D. D., Cannon of Christ Church, 
and Professor of Geology in the University of Oxford, says: 
"If the suggestions I shall venture to propose, require some 
modification of the most commonly received and popular in- 
terpretation of the Mosaic narrative, this admission neither in- 



any impeachment 
udtrment of those 



f 




erwise, in the absence of information as to facts which have 
but recently been brought to light; and if in this respect, 
ology should seem to require some little concession from 
literal interpreter of scripture, it may be fairly held to afford 
ample compensation for this demand, by the large additions it 
has made to the evidences of natural religion, in a department 
where revelation was not designed to give information. 1 ' 

4* 



44 

"Some have attempted to ascribe the formation of all the 
stratified rocks to the effects of the Mosaic Deluge; an opinion 
which is irreconcilable with the enormous thickness and al- 
most infinite subdivisions of the strata, and with the numerous 
and regular successions which they contain of the remains of 
animals and vegetables, differing more and more widely from 
existing species, as the strata in which we find them are placed 
at greater depths. The fact that a large portion of these re- 
mains belong to extinct genera, and almost all of them to ex- 
tinct species, that lived and multiplied and died on or near the 
spots where they are now found, shows that the strata in 
which they occur were deposited slowly and gradually during 
long periods of time, and at widely distant intervals. These 
extinct animals and vegetables could therefore have formed no 
part of the creation with which we are immediately connected" 

"There is in truth (says Bishop Blomfield) no opposition 
nor inconsistency between religion and science, commonly so 
called, except that which has been conjured up by injudicious 
zeal or false philosophy, mistaking the ends of divine revela- 
tion." "We may join the praises which are lavished upon 
philosophy and science, and fearlessly go forth with their 
votaries into all the various paths of research, by which the 
mind of man pierces into the hidden treasures of nature, and 
harmonizes its more conspicuous features and removes the 
veil which to the ignorant or careless observer, obscures the 
traces of God's glory in the works of his hands." 



Dr 



Chalmers says "We conclude with adverting to the 
unanimity of Geologists in one point — the far superior antiqui- 



of 



writings of Moses. What 



shall we think of this? 
we may feel a security as to those points in which they differ; 
but when they agree, this security fails. There is no neutral- 
ization of authority among them as to the age of the world; 
and Cuvier with his catastrophes and epochs leaves the popu- 
lar opinion nearly as far behind him, as they who trace our 
present continents upward through an indefinite series of an- 
cestors, and assign many millions of years to the existence of 
each generation." 



The following extracts are from John Pye Smith, D. D. F. 
G. S. one of the most learned commentators of England: 

"Ingenious calculations have been made of the capacity of 
the ark, as compared with the room requisite for the pairs of 



45 

e animals, and the septuples of others: and it is remarka- 
ble that the well-intentioned calculators have formed their esti- 
mate upon a number of animals below the truth, to a degree 
which might appear incredible. They have usually satisfied 
themselves with a provision for three or four hundred species 
at most; as in general they show the most astonishing i 





ranee of every branch of Natural History. Of the existing 
mammalia (animals which nourish their young by breast) con- 
siderably more than one thousand species are known; of birds, 
fully five thousand; of Reptiles, very few kinds of which can 
live in water, two thousand; and the researches of travellers 
and naturalists are making frequent and most interesting ad- 
ditions to the number of these and all other classes. Of In- 
sects (using the word in its popular sense) the number of s 
cies is immense; to say one hundred thousand would be mode- 
rate: each has its appropriate habitation and food, and these 
are necessary to its life; and the larger number could not live in 
water. Also the innumerable millions upon millions of ani- 
malcula must be provided for; for they have all their appro- 
priate and diversified places and circumstances of existence. 
But all land animals have their geographical regions, to which 
their constitutional natures are congenial, and many could not 
live in any other situation. We cannot represent to ourselves 
the idea of their being brought into one small spot, from the 
polar regions, the torrid zone, and all other climates of Asia, 
Africa, Europe, America, Australia, and the thousands of 
islands; their preservation and provision; and the final disposal 
of them; — without bringing up the idea of miracles more stu- 
pendous than any that are recorded in Scripture, even what 
appear appalling in comparison. The great decisive miracle 
of Christianity, the Resurrection of the Lord Jesus, — sinks 

down before it. 

"The persons of whom we are speaking have probably nev- 
er apprehended any difficulty with respect to the inhabitants 
of the water; supposing that no provision was needed for their 
preservation. It may therefore be proper to notice some par- 
ticulars. Such an additional quantity of water as their inter- 
pretation requires, would so dilute and alter the mass as to 
render it an unsuitable element for the existence of all the 
classes, and would kill or disperse their food; and all have 
their appropriate food. Many of the marine fishes and shell 
animals could not live in fresh water: and the fresh water ones 
would be destroyed by being kept even a short time in salt 
water. Some species can indeed live in brackish water; hav- 
ing been formed by their Creator to have their dwelling in es- 



46 



and the portions of rivers approaching the sda: but 



increased 
awav of ti 



be affected, fatally in all probability, by the 
of water and the scattering ana floating 
nent. 

ty of ways, it is manifest that, upon the inter- 

the preservation 



pretation which 1 1 

of animal life in the ark was immensely short of being adeq 



to what was 



if 



and also accede 



to the usual opinion that the Ararat upon which the ark rested 
was the celebrated mountain of that name in Armenia, and 



olved in 
ly the height of 



which tradition points out as being such 
another perplexity. That mountain ii 
our European Mont Blanc, and perpetual snow covers about 
five thousand feet from its summit. If the water rose, at its 
liquid temperature, so as to overflow that summit, the snows 
and icy massss would be melted; and, on the retiring of the 
flood, the exposed mountain would present its pinnacles and 
ridges, dreadful precipices of naked rock, adown which the 
four men and four women, and with hardly any exception the 
quadrupeds, would have found it utterly impossible to de- 
scend. To provide against this difficulty, to prevent them 
from being dashed to pieces, — must we again suppose a mira- 
cle? Must we conceive of the human beings and the animals, 
as transported through the air to the more level regions below; 
or that, by a miracle equally grand, they were enabled to 
glide unhurt down the wet and slippery laces of rock? 

"One fact more I have to mention, in this range of argu- 
ment. There are trees of the most astonishing magnificence 
as to form and size, which grow, the one species in Africa, the 
other in the southern part of North America. There are also 
methods of ascertaining the age of trees of the class to which 

, with satisfaction generally, but with full evidence 
after they lave passed the early stages of their growth. Indi- 




viduals 
methods 




ow existing are proved, by those 
grow at an epoch long before 



date of the deluge; if we even adopt the largest chronology 
that learned men have proposed. Had those trees been cov- 
ered with water for three-quarters of a year, they must have 
been destroyed; the most certain conditions of vegetable na- 
ture, for the class (the most perfect land plants) to which they 
belong, put such a result out of doubt. Here then we are met 
by another mdependant proof that the deluge did not extend 
to those regions of the earth. 

"Such are the objections which present themselves against 



47 

the interpretation which, with grief I acknowledge, is gener- 
ally admitted, in relation to the scriptural narrative of the de- 
luge. It is a painful position in which I stand. I seem to be 
taking the part of an enemy, adducing materials for skep- 
ticism, and doing nothing to remove them. But this situ- 
ation for me is inseparable from the plan of these lectures; 
the only plan that appeared practicable. The apparent dis- 
cripancies, between the facts of science and the words of Scrip- 
ture, must be understood, before we can make any attempt 
at their removal. I confide in the candour of my friends, 
that they will suspend their judgment till I am enabled to lay 
before them the way, in which I conceive that independent 
and unforced philological evidence will enable us satisfactori- 
ly to dispose of those difficulties." 



"The actual Zoology and Botany of the earths surface ex- 
hibit several distinct regions, in each of which the indiginous 
animals and plants, are at least as to species and to a considera- 
ble amount as to genera, different from those of other Zoolo- 
gical and Botanical regions. The habitation proper to one 
description of vegetable or animal families would be intolera- 
ble and speedily fatal to others." He goes on to argue that 

these animals and plants were created where they are found. 

"The earlier part of the book of Genesis consists of several 
distinct compositions, marked by their differences of style and 
by express formularies of commencement. It is entirely conso- 
nant with the idea of inspiration and established by the whole 
tenor of the Scriptural compositions, that the heavenly influ- 
ence operated in a concurrence with the rational faculties of 
the inspired men; so that prophets and apostles wrote from 



their own knowledge and memory, the testimony of other por- 



tions, and writtten documents, to which indeed express appeal 
is often made. From the evidence of language and of matter, 
we have no slight reasons for supposing that Moses compiled 
the chief facts of the book of Genesis, by arranging and con- 



necting ancient memorials, under the divine direction, and 
probably during the middle part of his life which he spent in 
the retirements of Arabia." 



Chrysostom lays down, as a principle for the interpretation 
of the beginning of Genesis, that Moses designed to write on- 
ly of the sensible appearances of things, adapting both the mat- 
ter and the expression to the capacities of the Israelites, a peo- 
ple recently delivered from the oppression of E 
ry, and wnose minds had not been elevated above low and 
common conceptions* 




48 

Dr. Jennings and others entertain the same views respect- 
ing this book. 



"A most important subject of our inquiry is the genuine 
meaning of the word which we render Earth. I assure my friends 
that I have not spared time or pains in pursuing this inquiry; 
and the result I briefly give* The most general sense of the 
word, is the portion of the universe which the Supreme Lord 
has assigned for the habitation of mankind. When it is con- 
joined with **the heavens" it denotes the entire created world; 
but it is evident of itself that the practical understanding of 
the phrase would be in conformity with the ideas of the people 
who used it — frequently it stands for the Land of Palestine; 
and indeed for any country or district that is mentioned or re- 
ferred to in the connexion. Sometimes it denotes a mere plot 
of ground; and sometimes the soil, clay and sand, or any earthy 
matter. Often it is put figuratively for mankind, as the in- 
habitants of the world— considering all the evidence of the 
case, I can find no reason against our considering the word, 
subsequently to the first verse, and throughout the whole des- 
cription of the six days, as designed to express the part of the 
world which God wot adapting for the dwelling of man and the 
animals connected with him. Of the spheroidal figure of the earth, 
it is evident that the Hebrews had not the most distant concept 
tion. The passages which have been quoted, and many oth- 
ers abundantly convince me that it never entered into the pur- 
pose of Revelation to teach men geographical facts or any other 
kind of physical knowledge." 

"I venture to think that man, as first created, and for many ages 
afterwards, did not extend his race beyond certain limits, and 
therefore had no connextion with the extreme east. The In- 
dian and Pacific clusters of islands, Africa, Europe and Amer- 
ica; in which regions we have occular demonstration that ani- 
mals and vegetable creatures had existed, to a vast amount, 



•II 



uninterruptedly through periods past, of indiscribable duration." 

"There are declarations of Scripture which seem thus to op* 
m facts, of which we have the same kind of sensible evi- 
dence that we have of the letters and words of the sacred vol- 
ume; and which we understand by the same intellectual facul- 
ties by which we apprehend the sense of that volume. Now 
those appearances — facts I must call them — have been scruti- 
nized with the utmost jealousy and rigour; and they stand im- 



pregnable; their evidence is made brighter by every assault 



We must then turn to the other side of our research; we must 



49 

admit the. probability, that we have not rightly interpreted 
those portions of Scripture. We must retrace our steps." 



th 



studied the phraseology 



certain than this, that 



universal terms are often used to signify only a very 



amount 



the writings of Moses 



The following passages, ta- 



And the famine was upon all the face of the earth; — and 



came to Eervnt. to buv from 



was < 
those 



Egypt, for the transport of so bulky an article as 



and 



died 



doubt 



subsequentparts of the same chapter, the cattle of the king and 
people of Egypt are mentioned in a way which shows that 
there were still remaining sufficient to constitute a considera- 
ble part of the nation's property. — "The hail smote every herb 



w 



after, we find the devastation of the locusts thus described; 
"They did eat every herb of the land and all the fruit of the 
trees, which, the hail had left." — "All the people brake off the 
golden ear-rings which were in their ears, ana brought them 
unto Aaron:" meaning undoubtedly a large number of persons, 
but very far from being the whole, or even a majority, of the 
people; as we may reasonably infer from the circumstance that 
the stroke of punitive justice, for this act of idolatory, fell up- 
on only three thousand persons, but the entire number of the 
Israelites at that time was a million and a half, and of them 



hundred thousand were grown men trained to arms. 




"This day will I begin to put the fear of thee and the dread of 
thee upon the face of the nations under all the heavens:" yet 
this declaration respects only the nations of Canaan and those 
lying upon its frontier, all being within a very small geograph- 
ical district. We likewise find the phrase, "under heaven," 
employed by the inspired writers to signify an extent of coun- 
try, large indeed, but falling exceedingly short of a geograph- 
ical universality: as, "I gave my heart to seek and search out 
bv wisdom concerniner all thinsrs that are done under heaven. 



dw 




Jews, devout 



out of every nation under heaven." With this passage is com- 
bined a geographical enumeration, which points out the ex- 
tent of country intended, as being from Italy to Persia, and 
from Egypt to the Black Sea: and thus a probable elucidation 



SO 



is given to the declaration of the apostle, that "the gospel was 
preached to every creature whicn is under heaven." — "Ye 
shall be plucked from off the land whither thou goest to pos- 



sess it, and the Lord shall scatter thee among all peoples, fri 



• HI 



one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth:" a 
phrophetic description of the dispersion of the Jewish people, 
as the punishment of their apostacy from God and rejection 
of the Messiah, but no one can regard the expression a9 deno- 
ting a proper geographical universality. — "The fame of David 
went forth into all the lands, [the plural of the word generally 
rendered the earth,] and Jehovah put the fear of him upon all 
the nations." This expression cannot be taken as reaching be- 
yond the range of Syria, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Arabia, and 
Egypt. — "All the earth sought the presence of Solomon, 
to hear his wisdom." This cannot oe reasonably under- 
stood of any kind of resort but that of embassies and compli- 
mentary visits, from sovereigns and states within such a dis- 
tance, as might have appeared immense in those times, but 
which was small compared with even the then inhabited parts 
of the earth. The queen of Sheba, was, we may think un- 
doubtedly, the principal of these visitants. Our Lord himself 
condescended to use the style of the Jews, in saying of her, 
that "the queen of the south came from the uttermost parts 
of the earth, to hear the wisdom of Solomon." Yet her coun- 
try was on either the Eastern or the Western side of the Ara- 
bian Gulf, about twelve or fourteen hundred miles south of Je- 
rusalem, a mere trifle compared with the distances familiar to 
us in our days. 

"Passages are numerous, in which the phrase "all the 

earth" signifies only the country of Palestine. In a few pla- 
ces it denotes the Chaldean empire: in one, that of Alexander. 



''From these instances of the scriptural idiom in the appli 
cation of phraseology similar to that in the narrative concern- 
ing the flood, I humbly think that those terms do not oblige us 
to understand a literal universality; so that we are exonerated 
from some otherwise insuperable difficulties in Natural Histo- 
ry and Geology. If so much of the earth was overflowed as 
was occupied by the human race, both the physical and the 
moral ends of that awful visitation were answered." 



"The following extracts are valuable and interesting, as 
they show the impression made upon the mind of an able Bible 
critic, the elder Kosenmiiller, at a time when geological re- 
searches were little known, and when Werner, at the age of 
25, was but just beginning his career. He was far from the 



€i 



51 

opinion which his son promulgated! fifteen years after, tread- 
ing in the steps of Simplicius (in the sixth century) and Het- 
zel, Hase, and others in our own times, that Moses derived his 
history of the creation from the Egyptians. The resemblance 
is indeed remarkable: but I think it is much more rationally 
accounted for by supposing that the Egyptian and Phenician 
traditions have flowed from a common source, the family of 
Noah; and that Moses, under the direction of divine inspiration, 
placed at the commencement of his great work the very written 
documents of primeval men which had descended in the Abra- 
hamic line, and which were the genuine records whence the 
other trad itions had been derived, — J. P. Smith. 

The enemies of religion act a very inequitable part when 
they require of us such explications of all chronological and 
historical difficulties, as should leave no portion of doubt re- 
maining. Can it surprise any man that, in the most ancient of 
all writings, many things should be obscure to us, who live 
in times so extremely remote? — In consequence of the great 
advances which have been made in modern times, in Hebrew 
and Greek philology and the languages and antiquities of the 
east, no small number of dark and difficult passages have been 
satisfactorily elucidated, so as to make it perfectly clear that 
most objections have been engendered by ignorance. Every 
good writer must be presumed to speak according to the cus- 
tom of the men among whom he lived, and their common use 
of language. I shall not meddle with the question, whether 
the contents of the beginning of Genesis were by God reveal- 
ed immediately to Moses, or that he derived them from more 
ancient records. The style, and the entire manner of the de- 
scription, involve evidence of the highest antiquity. At eve- 
ry step we perceive proofs of that extreme simplicity which 
must have been the character of our race in its very infancy. 
With respect to divine subjects, in particular, the first step of 
human knowledge must undoubtedly have consisted in concep- 
tions of God derived from our own nature; ascribing to the De- 
ity the same properties and perfections which men perceived 
in themselves, but in modes and degrees infinitely more per- 
fect. Upon this principal are fburided the representations of 
God which are given in the books of Moses, and many other 
parts of the Old Testament. Indeed this is, in my judgment, 
a very plain argument, not only of the genuineness and truth 



of those books, but of their divine origin: seeing that they 



present to us a method of description concerning God and di- 
vine things, perfectly suited to the capacity of men in the ear- 
liest times, and yet the most sublime, and, when fairly and can- 

5 



52 

didly interpreted, in perfect accordance with spiritual truth. 
The scoffers at revealed religion, philosophers as they please 
to call themselves, betray an almost unpardonable ignorance, 
when they make stumbling-blocks out of those constantly oc- 
curring expressions of the Old Testament which speak of the 
Deity [anthropopathicis locutioniims] in language borrowed 
from human properties and actions. What can be a grosser 
absurdity, and even folly than to require that Moses and the 
prophets should have spoken of divine truths, in the very in- 
fancy of the human race, according to the philosophy of Des-? 
cartes, Newton, or Wolf? 

"In the beginning God created this universe; the heavens 
and the earth. But, with respect to this earthly globe, it was 
not at once the abode of men and animals, as it is now: but 
there was a period during which it was utterly destitute of 



such a furniture of things as it now possesses, it did not enjoy 



the light of the sun, and it was completely covered with water, 
Whether, at its first being brought into being, it possessed a 
constitution like that of comets, being consequently uninhab- 
itable; or whether it was reduced into its actual state, after a 
vast space of time, by some kind of universal inundation of 



water, with the concurrence of other causes both natural and 



extraordinary; cannot be with certainty determined from the 
Mosaic narrative. But this detracts nothing from the truth 
and dignity of the narrative. It never was in the mind or in- 
tention of Moses, to unfold physical causes, of which he was 
most probably ignorant, and which it was no part or object of 
his divine commission to make known. Nor could the Israel- 
ites, for whose immediate benefit this history was intended, 
have comprehended such matters: for who can suppose that 
they knew any thing of the nature of comets, or the planetary 
constitution of the earth]" J. G-. Rosenmulleri Antiquissima 
Telluris Historia, a Mose Gen. i°. descripta, Ulna, 1776; pp. 6, 
10, 11, 12, 71." 



The learned and pious Bishop of Chester, says:— "Any cu- 
rious information as to the structure of the earth ought still 
less to be expected, by any one acquainted with the general 
character of the Mosaic records. There is nothing in them, 
either to gratify the curiosity or repress the researches of man- 



kind, when brought, in the progress of cultivation, to calculate 



the motions of the heavenly bodies or speculate on the forma- 
tion of the globe. The expressions of Moses are evidently ac- 
commodated to the first and familiar notions derived from the 
sensible appearances of the earth and heavens: and the absurd- 



53 



ity of supposing that the literal interpretation of terms in Scrip- 
ture ought to interfere with the advancement of philosophical 
inquiry, would have been as generally forgotten as renounced, 



if the oppressors of Galileo had not found a place in history . 
No rational naturalist would attempt to describe, either from 
the brief description in Genesis or otherwise, the process by 

our system was brought from confusion into a regular 




and habitable state. No rational theologian will direct his 
hostility against any theory which, acknowledging the agency 
of the Creator, only attempts to point out the secondary instru- 
ments he has employed/' 



The following extracts are from Sears' history of the Bible, 
a work recommended by a large body of the Clergy of the 
U. States: 

" No less than 30,000 various readings of the Old and New 
Testament have been discovered;" "and putting all alterations 
made knowingly, for the purpose of corrupting the text, out of 
the question, we must admit, that from the circumstances con- 
nected with transcribing, some errata may have found their 
way into it, and that the sacred Scriptures, have in this case 
suffered the same fate of other productions of antiquity." 

He goes on to say, "that in the last 220 years, critical learn- 
ing has so much improved, and so many new manuscripts have 
come to light, as to call for a revision of the present author- 
ized version, &c." 

Now I presume that these errors do not implicate the great 
and important truths of the Bible; but here are admissions 
enough to throw open the field for a dispassionate discussion 
on the Unity of the Human Race.